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그러나 1910년대 중반까지 NAACP에는 몇몇 저명한 유대인 회원이 있었습니다. Joel 형제와 Arthur Spingarn 형제는 각각 이사회 의장과 최고 법률 고문을 역임했습니다. Herbert Lehman은 집행 위원회에서 일했습니다. Lillian Wald와 Walter Sachs가 이사회에서 일했습니다. Jacob Schiffand Paul Warburg는 조직의 재정가였습니다. 1920년까지 Herbert Seligmann은 홍보 책임자였으며 Martha Greuning은 그의 조수로 일했습니다. NAACP 설립과 관련된 다른 저명한 유대인 인물로는 Jacob Billikopf, Julius Rosenwald, 랍비 Emil G. Hirsch 및 랍비 Stephen Wise가 있습니다. 마커스 가비(Marcus Garvey)가 1917년에 NAACP 본부가 백인 조직이라고 불평하면서 밖으로 돌진한 것은 놀라운 일이 아닙니다.
NAACP는 이방인인 Mary White Ovington에 의해 "1910년대 중반"이 아니라 1910년경에 설립되었습니다. 1914년에 그녀는 "유색인종 발전을 위한 전국 협회는 어떻게 시작되었는가"라는 짧은 소책자를 썼습니다. 이 설명에 따르면 창립 멤버는 거의 모두 이방인이었지만 초기에 중요한 인물은 Ovington의 측근인 Henry Moscowitz였습니다. 또 다른 중요한 인물은 윌리엄 잉글리시 월링(William English Walling)으로 남부의 저명한 가문 출신이지만 다양한 사회적 대의에 깊이 관여하는 러시아계 유대인인 아내 안나 스트런스키(Anna Strunsky)의 영향을 받았습니다. 조직의 원래 임원은 다음과 같습니다.
윌리엄 잉글리쉬 월링
존 E. 밀홀랜드
오스왈드 개리슨 빌라드
윌리엄 에드워드 버그하르트 뒤 보이스
이들 중 유일한 Blascoer는 유대인이었다. 일반적으로 조직의 주체는 Storey, Milholland, Villard와 같은 부유한 개신교 폐지론자들로 구성되어 있었고 많은 기독교 성직자들이 있었습니다. Walling의 아내와 같은 유태인 회원은 확실히 참석했지만 그들은 소수였으며 아마도 기껏해야 10% - 15%를 구성했을 것입니다.
RAC와 시민권 운동
미국에서 인종차별과 차별에 반대하는 투쟁에 유대인들이 강력하게 대응한 것은 놀라운 일이 아닙니다. 결국 역사상 그 어떤 집단도 인종적 증오의 희생자가 된 적이 없습니다.
[ A. Vorspan 및 D. Saperstein에서 발췌, 사회 정의의 유대인 차원: 우리 시대의 어려운 도덕적 선택 (UAHC 보도: 1998, 203ff) ]
미국에서 인종차별과 차별에 반대하는 투쟁에 유대인들이 강력하게 대응한 것은 놀라운 일이 아닙니다. 어쨌든 역사상 그 어떤 집단도 인종적 증오의 희생자가 된 적이 없었습니다. 그 결과, 미국 사회의 소수만이 시민권을 위한 투쟁에 유대인 사회만큼 깊이 투자했습니다. 신앙과 계몽된 사리사욕에 대한 요구의 결과로 유대인들은 50년대와 강력한 흑인/유대인 동맹이 민권 운동의 중심에 있었던 60년대.
- 1964년 미시시피 여름이 연방에서 가장 완고하게 저항하는 주에서 법적 분리를 무너뜨리기 위해 조직되었을 때, 미국 전역에서 자원한 젊은이들의 50퍼센트가 유대인이었습니다. 그 투쟁에서 백인 극단주의자들은 미시시피 주 필라델피아에서 3명의 순교자를 죽였습니다. 앤드류 굿맨(Andrew Goodman)과 마이클 슈워너(Michael Schwerner)는 유대인 세 번째, 제임스 얼 채니(James Earl Chaney)는 흑인이었다.
- 유태인들은 전국 유색인종 발전 협회(National Association for the Advancement of Colored People), 남부 기독교 지도력 회의(Southern Christian Leadership Conference) 및 학생 비폭력 조정 위원회(Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee)와 같은 조직에서 모금한 기금을 찾는 데 크게 기여했습니다.
- 수년 동안 Kivie Kaplan(유태인 개혁 운동의 부의장)은 NAACP Arnie Aronson의 전국 회장이었고 Joe Rauh Jr.는 각각 LCCR(Leadership Conference on Civil Rights)의 사무총장과 법률 고문을 역임했습니다. Jack Greenberg는 NAACP Legal Defense Fund의 전무이사였습니다. 이들은 시민권 운동에서 핵심적인 역할을 한 많은 유대인들 중 소수에 불과했습니다. 적절하게도, 1998년에 클린턴 대통령은 전설적인 A. Philip Randolph 및 Roy Wilkins와 함께 LCCR을 설립한 미국 유대인 지도자인 Aronson에게 대통령 자유 메달을 수여했습니다. 수십 년 동안 Aronson은 30개 이상의 광범위한 민권법을 통과시키기 위한 매핑 전략에서 유대인 및 흑인 인권 지도자들을 이끌었습니다.
- 1910년부터 1940년까지 2,000개 이상의 학교와 20개의 흑인 대학(Howard, Dillard 및 Fisk 대학 포함)이 유대인 자선가인 Julius Rosenwald의 기부금으로 전체 또는 부분적으로 자금을 지원받았습니다. 소위 "로젠발트 학교"가 절정에 이르렀을 때 남부 흑인의 거의 40%가 이러한 교육 기관 중 한 곳에서 교육을 받았습니다.
- 랍비들은 Martin Luther King Jr.와 함께 남부 전역을 행진했으며, 그곳에서 일부는 구타를 당하고 많은 사람들은 투옥되었습니다. 이들 중 눈에 띄는 사람은 인종 차별에 맞서 싸우는 킹의 영적 파트너인 랍비 아브라함 조슈아 헤셀(Abraham Joshua Heschel)이었습니다. URJ와 CCAR의 많은 지도자들은 1964년 플로리다 세인트 어거스틴에서 마틴 루터 킹 주니어와 함께 공공 시설에서의 인종 차별에 대한 도전으로 체포되었습니다.
개혁 운동과 시민권
유대인의 정치적 영향력은 국내 및 지역적으로 획기적인 시민권법 통과에 기여했습니다. 시민권과 종교 단체가 인종적 악에 맞서 미국의 양심을 결집시키면 적어도 변화가 일어났습니다. 1964년의 민권법과 1965년의 투표권법은 모두 시민권에 관한 리더십 회의(수십 년 동안 센터에 보관됨)의 후원 하에 워싱턴 D.C.에 있는 RAC 건물의 회의실에서 초안이 작성되었습니다.
유대인 공동체는 여성, 소수 인종 및 장애인에 대한 투표, 주택 및 고용에서의 지속적인 차별을 다루면서 미국 역사상 가장 광범위한 민권법을 열렬히 지지했습니다.
개혁 운동은 1990년대부터 그 지도자들이 LCCR의 집행 위원회와 NAACP의 전국 이사회에서 유대인 공동체를 대표하기 때문에 주목을 받아 왔습니다. 랍비 David Saperstein은 현재 NAACP 이사회의 유일한 비아프리카계 미국인입니다.
시민권과 Arthur and Sara Jo Kobacker 빌딩
30년 동안 Religious Action Center는 시민권 법안에 대한 지지를 결집하기 위해 정기적으로 모인 다수의 주요 시민권과 유대인 단체를 수용했습니다. 다음은 센터에서 초안이 작성되었거나 해당 법안을 지지하는 연합이 센터 회의실에서 회의를 개최한 주요 시민권 법안의 일부 샘플입니다.
헝가리 유대인의 역사 - 1910년 유대인 인구 비율
N = 신조어 다수 n = 신조어 소수 Q = 현상 유지 이전 다수 q = 현상 유지 이전 소수 X = 정교회 다수 x = 소수 정교회 * = 하시드 왕조가 존재함(참조). 마을과 마을에 정교회 공동체만 있는 경우에는 표시되지 않습니다.
1941년에서 1944년 사이에 SL = 슬로바키아, RO = 루마니아, GE = 독일, IT = 이탈리아, CR = 크로아티아에 속한 마을이나 마을입니다. 표시가 없는 커뮤니티는 홀로코스트 기간 동안 헝가리의 통치하에 있었습니다.
헝가리어 이름의 발음은 일관됩니다: s= sh, sz= s, c= cz = tz, cs= ch, zs= zh, gy= dy, ly= y, j= y.
유대인 인구가 5%를 초과한 "rendezett tanácsú" 또는 "törvényhatósági jogú"(즉, 자치) 도시 목록은 다음과 같습니다.
- 문카치(무카체보) 44.4% *,
- Máramarossziget(Sighetu Marmaţiei) 37.4% *,
- Ungvár(Uzhhorod) 31.4% *Xn, Bártfa(Bardejov SL) 30.4%, Beregszász(Berehove) 30.2% *,
- Sátoraljaújhely 28.7% *Xq,
- Nagyvárad(Oradea) 23.6% Xn, 부다페스트 23.1% Nx, Nyitra(Nitra SL) 22.4% *,
- Szilágysomlyó(Şimleu Silvaniei) 20.9%, Bánffyhunyad(Huedin) 20.7%, Szatmárnémeti(Satu Mare) 20.6% *
Xq, Miskolc 20.0% *,
- Dés(Dej) 18.9% *, Újpest, 현재 부다페스트 18.4% N,
- Trencsén(Trenčín SL) 16.7%, Késmárk(Kežmarok SL) 16.6%, Losonc(Lučenec) 16.5% Nx, Eperjes(Prešov SL) 16.4%, Zsolna(Žilina SL) 16.0%
- 나기카롤리(카레이) 15.5%, 파파 15.3% *
, 카사(코시체) 15.2% *Nx,
- 레바(레비체) 14.3% Q, 나기좀바트(트르나바 SL) 14.0%,
- Kaposvár 13.9% N, Gyulafehérvár(Alba Iulia RO) 13.7%, Kisszeben(Sabinov SL) 13.3%, Poprád(Poprad SL) 13.0%,
- Nagykanizsa 12.7% N, Győr 12.6% Nx, Gyöngyös 12.6% Qx, Zalaegerszeg 12.4% N, Szepesváralja(Spišské Podhradie SL) 12.4%,
- Hátszeg(Hațeg RO) 11.8%, Besztercebánya(Banská Bystrica SL) 11.7%, Kolozsvár(Cluj-Napoca) 11.6% *
Xn, Szamosújvár(Gherla) 11.3%, Vác 11.2%,
- Beszterce(Bistriţa) 10.9%, Nagybánya(Baia Mare) 10.9%, Szászrégen(Reghin) 10.8% *, Komárom 10.7% Nx, Pozsony(Bratislava SL, Pressburg) 10.5%, Nyzalya. 아라드 RO) 10.0%, 리마좀바트(리마브스카 소보타) 10.0%,
- 바하 9.9% N, 에게르 9.5% *
qx, Érsekújvár(Nové Zámky) 9.5% Xn, Lőcse(Levoča SL) 9.5%, Lugos(Lugoj RO) 9.5%, Temesvár(Timișoara RO) 9.3%, Dicsőszentmárton(%1) 데바 RO) 9.1%,
- Marosvásárhely(Târgu Mureş) 8.7% Xq, Rózsahegy(Ruzomberok SL) 8.7%, Veszprém 8.6% N, Székesfehérvár 8.3% Nx, Pécs 8.1% N,
- Fogaras(Făgăraş RO) 7.8%, Rozsnyó(Rožňava) 7.5% N, Jolsva(Jelšava) 7.5%, Bazin(Pezinok SL) 7.5%, Szolnok 7.2% N,
- Újvidék(Novi Sad) 6.9% N, Zólyom(Zvolen SL) 6.9%, Sopron(Ödenburg) 6.7% nx, Nagyrőce(Revúca SL) 6.7%, Körmöcbánya(Kremnica SL) 6.6%, C. Kolozs(Cojocna) 6.5%, Igló(Spišská Nová Ves SL) 6.3%, Felsőbánya(Baia Sprie) 6.1%, Szepesbéla(Spišská Belá SL) 6.1%, Hajdúnánás 6.0%,
- Szeged 5.8% N, Makó 5.5% Xn, Kismarton(Eisenstadt GE) 5.5%, Szekszárd 5.6% N, Karánsebes(Caransebeş RO) 5.2%, Zilah(Zalău) 5.1%, Eztergom 5.1%
몇몇 마을에서 유태인의 수는 천 명을 넘었지만 지역 인구에서 그들의 비율은 5.0% 미만이었습니다. 이 도시에는 3539명의 유태인 거주자가 있는 Szabadka(Subotica) Nx(3.7%), Kecskemét 2022(3.0%), Békéscsaba 1970(4.6%), Fiume(Rijeka IT) 1696(3.4%), Hódmező2. (Senta) * 1328 (4.5%), Nagybecskerek (Зрењанин, Zrenjanin) 1232 (4.7%), Cegléd 1121 (3.3%), Karcag 1077 (4.7%), Kiskunfélegyháza (4.7%). ).
1910년에 유대인이 많이 거주했던 다른 마을과 마을은 다음과 같습니다.
- Alsókismartonhegy(현재 Eisenstadt GE의 일부) 79.3%, Tiszakarácsonyfa(Crăciuneşti) 52.8%,
- Faluszlatina(Solotvyno) 47.6%, Sztropkó(Stropkov SL) 44.1% *, Dunaszerdahely(Dunajská Strreda) 43.6% *, Alsóverecke(Нижні Ворота, Nyzhni Vorota), 41.
- Oroszvég(Rosvehove, 현재 Mukachevo의 일부) 39.5%, Romoly(Romuri) 39.2%, Visóoroszi(Ruscova) 37.5%,
- Homonna(Humenné SL) 34.8%, Tiszaújlak(Вилок, Vylok) 34.8%, Nagyberezna(Великий Березний, Velyky Berezny) 34.5%, Mezőlaborc(Medzilaborce.3%, SL) 34
- Nagykapos(Veľké Kapušany) 33.8%, Beregkövesd(Кам'янське, Kamjans'ke) 33.5%, Hunfalva(Huncovce SL) 33.2% *
- Felsővisó(Vişeu de Sus) 32.9%, Szaplonca(Săpânţa) 32.6% *
, Galánta(갈란타) 32.4%, Nagymihály(Michalovce) 32.3%, Majdánka(마이단) 31.8%,
- 할미(Halmeu) 30.7%, Kisvárda 30.3%, Liptószentmiklós(Liptovský Mikuláš SL) 30.3%, Nagytapolcsány(Topoľčany SL) 30.2%, Rozália(Rozavlea) 30
- 즈보로(Zborov SL) 29.7%, 오산도르팔바(Олександрівка, 올렉산드리브카) 29.7%,
- Gálszécs(Sečovce SL) 28.8%, Nagyszőlős(Vynohradiv) 28.6%, Bacsó(Чабанівка, Chabanivka) 28.5%, bustyaháza(Буштинo, Bushtyno) 28.2%, Kök
- Lakompak(Lackenbach GE) 27.8%, Varannó(Vranov nad Topľou SL) 27.4%,
- Benedeki (Бенедиківці, Benedykivci) 26.9%, Majszin (Moisei) 26.8%, Vágújhely (Nové Mesto nad Váhom SL) 26.4%, Szolyva (Svaliava) 26.2% (.0%), Hidalmá
- Szerednye(Serednje, Середнє) 25.8%, Dragomérfalva(Dragomireşti) 25.7%, Nagysomkút(Şomcuta Mare) 25.4%, Bárdhovo, 5rdhovo.2.2, Vaj.
- Ilosva(이르샤바) 24.9%, Magyarlápos(Târgu Lăpuş) 24.6%, Nagykirva(Криве, Kryve) 24.6%, Sasvár(Šaštín-Stráže SL) 24.5%, SzepeskáSL(24.5%) , Szabadszállás 24.3%, Kisdobrony(Мала Добронь, Mala Dobron') 24.2%, Kabolapatak(발레아 호타룰루이) 24.2%, 보르사(보르샤) 24.2%,
- Tolcsva 23.5% *, Németvágás(Poruba pod Vihorlatom SL) 23.3%, Polena(Поляна, Poljana) 23.2%, Huszt(Khust) 23.0% *,
- Mezőkaszony (Косонь, Koson') 22.9%, Retteg (Reteag) 22.9%, Nagyilonda (Ileanda) 22.7% Tornalja (Tornaľa SL) 22.5%, Nyitrazsámbokrét (Žabokreky) Uglya(Угля, Uglja) 22.0%,
- Tokaj 21.9%, Felsőapsa(Верхнє Водяне, Verhnje Vodjane) 21.9%, Bilke(Білки, Bilky) 21.8%, Alőr(Urişor) 21.8%, Alsókubin(Dolný Kubín.5gh ) 21.5%, Puhó(Púchov SL) 21.1%, Királyhelmec(Kráľovský Chlmec) 21.0%, Petrova(Petrova) 21.0%, Szeklence(Сокирниця, Sokyrnycja) 21.0%,
- Héthárs(리파니 SL) 20.7%, Balassagyarmat 20.6%, Vásárosnamény 20.5%, Kabold(Kobersdorf GE) 20.2%, Nyírmada 20.2%, Nagymagyar(즐라테 클라시) 20.2%
- Nagybccse(Bytča SL) 19.8%, Alsóróna(Rona de Jos) 19.8%, Ökörmező(Mizhhir'ya) 19.7%, Nagybocskó(Velykyy Bychkiv) 19.5%, Mádúdrogkereszt 19.4%, Bo
, Érmihályfalva (Valea lui Mihai) 19.2%, Havasmező (Poienile de sub Munte) 19.2%, Beregkisfalud (Сільце, Sil'ce) 19.1%, Bethlen (Beclean) 19.0%, Посrmező (Р') , 마테잘카 19.0%, 아바우이잔토 19.0%,
- Izaszacsal(Săcel) 18.9%, Nyírbátor 18.8%, Irhóc(Вілхівці, Vilkhivci) 18.8%, Sopronkeresztúr(Deutschkreutz GE) 18.6% *
, 푸트녹 18.1%, 돔보(두보베) 18.1%,
- Bonyhád 17.8% Xn, Bözödújfalu(Bezidu Nou) 17.7%, Felsővízköz(Svidník SL) 17.7%, Ilonca(Ільниця, Il'nycja) 17.7%, Bán(Bán) Bebranovceu. 17.2%, Kissalló(현재 Tekovské Lužianky의 일부) 17.2%, Csenger 17.2%,
- Budfalva(Budeşti, Bistriţa-Năsăud) 16.9%, Magyarnemegye(Nimigea de Jos) 16.9%, Lemes(Lemešany SL) 16.8%, Naszód(Năsăud) 16.7% *,Volóc (Воло 립카) 16.1%,
- Zsibó(Jibou) 15.9%, Ipolyság(Šahy) 15.7%, Encs 15.7%, Szinérváralja(Seini) 15.6%,
- Balatonboglár 15.4% N, Tab 15.3%, Barcánfalva(Bârsana) 15.2%, Kovácsrét(Кушниця, Kusnycja, 15.1%, Boldogasszony(Frauenkirchen GE) 15.115%, Szeren 세부 실바니에이) 15.0%,
- Szenice (Senica SL) 14.9%, Alsóhidegpatak (Нижний Студенї, Nyzhny Studeni) 14.9%, Técső (Tiachiv) 14.8%віkh*, Jód (Ieud) ь 14.8%, Turócszentmá 14.7%, Alsóvisó(Viseu de Jos) 14.6%,
- 올라즐리스카 14.4% *
, Alsószinevér(Sinevir) 14.3%, Kövesliget(Драгово, Drahovo) 14.3%, Felsőszelistye(Săliştea de Sus) 14.2%, Alsólendva(Lendava), 14.0%(P Borgóprâ)
- Tapolca 13.8% N, Keszthely 13.8% N, Rohod 13.8%, Galgóc(Hlohovec SL) 13.7%, Hodász 13.6%, Nagymarton(Mattersdorf GE) 13.5% *, Avasújfalu(.5%)
- Fehérgyarmat 13.4%, Alsóapsa(Нижня Апша, Nyzhnja Apsha) 13.4%, Királyháza(Королеве, Koroleve) 13.4%, Aszód 13.3% N, Tasnád%(Tăş.nad)
- Levelek 12.9%, Ólubló(Stará Ľubovňa SL) 12.8%, Jánosháza 12.7%, Nyírbogát 12.7%, Élesd(Aleşd) 12.7%, Vaján(Vojany 부분) 12.6%
- Jármi 12.4%, Rahó(Rakhiv) 12.3%, Mandok 12.3%, Vágbeszterce(Považská Bystrica SL) 12.3%, Szamossályi 12.2%, Nyírtass 12.2% *
, 크사로다 12.1%, 게르겔리 12.1%, 베레티오우이팔루 12.1%, 니르메기스 12.0%,
- Sajószentpéter 11.9%, Csáktornya(Čakovec) 11.9% N, Gemzse 11.9%, Nyírbakta 11.8%, Aranyosmarót(Zlaté Moravce SL) 11.8%, Jóka(Jelka) 16%% , Pöstyén(Piešťany SL) 11.5%,
- 나기칼로 11.3% *
, Beled 11.3%, Ilk 11.3%, Vaja 11.3%, Gernyés(Копашньово, Kopashn'ovo) 11.3%, Nagysurány(Šurany) 11.2%, Vilmány 11.2%, Erdő1.1nyeó1 , 사로스파탁 11.0%
- Zalaszentgrót 10.9% N, Dolha(Довге, Dovhe) 10.8%, Nyírcsászári 10.8%, Párkány(Štúrovo) 10.7% N, Szécsény 10.7%. (차아) 10.6%, 아바수이바로스(오라슈 노우) 10.5%,
- Barcs 10.3% N, Szenc(Senec) 10.3%, Lövőpetri 10.2%, Szinna(Snina SL) 10.1%, Avasfelsőfalu(Negrești-Oaș) 10.1%, Szepsi(Moldava nad 10.0%10, Magos Bodvou)
- 티잘록 9.9%, 키스바르사니 9.9%, 우이페헤르토 9.8% *
, Hőgyész 9.7%, Csorna 9.7%, Hidasnémeti 9.7%, Dombóvár 9.6%, Demecser 9.6%, Maroshévíz (Toplița) 9.6%, Holics (Holíč SL) 9.6d%, Velypal %, Ramocsahaza 9.6%, Szabolcsbáka 9.5%, Mezőcsát 9.5%, Olcsva 9.5%, Erzsébetfalva(현재 부다페스트 일부) 9.5%,
- Ónod 9.3%, Vámosmikola 9.2%, Büdszentmihály(현재 Tiszavasvári의 일부) 9.1%, Gyüre 9.1%, Hejőcsaba 9.1%, Aranyosmeggyes(Medieșu Aurit) 9.1%, Privigye ) 9.0%, 포르살마 9.0%,
- Tarcal 8.9%, Illava(Ilava SL) 8.9%, Ond 8.9%, Körmend 8.8% N, Ópályi 8.8%, Egeres(Aghireșu) 8.7%, Verebély(Vráble) 6,6%, Nagygéc 8.9% ) 8.6%, Céke(Cejkov) 8.6%, Zalalövő 8.5%, Muraszombat(Murska Sobota) 8.5% N, Sásd 8.5%, Gyulaháza 8.5%, Szendrő 8.5%,
- Ségénydányád 8.4%, Perecseny(Перечин, Perechyn), 8.4%, Vágsellye(Šaľa) 8.4%, Kersemjén 8.4%, Szurduk(Surduc) 8.4%, .3%, Sárván, 8.3% E. Fülesd 8.3%, Tiszaadony 8.3%, Kraszna(Crasna) 8.3%, Celldömölk 8.3%, Vármező(Buciumi) 8.2%, Visk(Вишковo, Vyshkovo) 8.1%, Diszel 8.1%, Felled ) 8.0%, 박 8.0%,
- Tata 7.9% N, Ruttka(Vrútky SL) 7.9%, Nyírbogdány 7.9%, Oszlány(Oslany SL)) 7.8%, Boldogkőváralja 7.8%, Kisbér 7,7.8%, Tállya 7%saca 7. ) 7.7%, Nagyecsed 7.6% *, Farkasrév(Vadu Izei) 7.6%, Eszék(Osijek CR) 7.5%, Nyíracsád 7.5%, Nyírkarász 7.5%, Széphalom 7.5%,
- Salgótarján 7.4%, Balatonfüred 7.4%, Gégény 7.4%, Tiszaszentmárton 7.4%, Szirák 7.3%, Csabrendek 7.3%, Dámóc 7.3%, Szatmárcseke 7.3% %, Moson(Wieselburg, 현재 Mosonmagyaróvár의 일부) 7.1% Q, Városszalónak(Stadtschlaining GE) 7.1%, Álmosd 7.1%, Apc 7.0%, Óradna(Rodna) 7.0%, Liptódójvár 가르부) 7.0%, 니르미할리디 7.0%, 티자다다 7.0%,
- Fábiánháza 6.9%, Gulács 6.9%, Kővágóörs 6.8%, Vajszló 6.8%, Tiszafüred 6.8%, Pacsa 6.8%, D.A.8, 6.8.B.Belovár(Bjelovar CR) 6.8%, Bercsényifalva (Borsec) 6.7%, Alsószopor(Supuru de Jos) 6.6%, Ricse 6.6%, Nagytétény(현재 부다페스트의 일부) 6.5%, Dombrád 6.5%,
- Podolin(Podolínec SL) 6.4%, Liptótepla(Liptovská Teplá SL) 6.4%, Talaborfalu(Теребля, Tereblja 6.4%, Rohonc(Rechnitz GE) 6.3%, Malacka(Malacky SL) 6.3%, Földes%6, Rajka 6.3%, Pécel 6.2% Q, Vámospércs 6.2%, Aknasugatag(Ocna Şugatag) 6.1%, Nagydobrony(Велика Добронь, Velyka Dobron') 6.0%, Sümeg 6.0%
- Kapuvár 5.9%, Harkány 5.9%, Rákosszentmihály(현재 부다페스트의 일부) 5.9%, Nyrlugos 5.8%, Pécsvárad 5.8%, Kaba 5.8%, Tinné 5.8%, Salánk(Шаланки) , Alistál(Dolný Štál) 5.7%, Mezőkeresztes 5.7%, Mohács 5.6% N, Tamási 5.6% N, Kapronca(Koprivnica CR) 5.6%, Pincehely 5.6%, Kispest(현재 부다페스트의 일부) 5.5% , Pozsega(Požega CR) 5.5%, Bród(Slavonski Brod CR) 5.5%, Harsány 5.5%,
- 자그레브(자그레브 CR) 5.4%, 타르파 5.2%, 티자백 5.4%, 자콜리 5.4%, 데레츠케 5.3%, 키스타르사 5.3%, 바드나 5.3%, 베르펠레 5.3%, 카제크 5.3%, 쿤마다라스5%, (시삭 CR) 5.0%, Enying 5.0%, Piliscsaba 5.0%, Pócspetri 5.0%, Mono 5.0%.
자치 마을을 포함하여 유대인 인구가 4%에 도달한 카운티는
- 마라마로스 18.4%, 베레그 14.2%, 우곡사 12.9%, 웅 10.9%,
- Zemplén 9.6%, Szabolcs 7.9%, Szatmár 7.4%, Sáros 7.1%, Abaúj-Torna 7.1%,
- Bihar 6.4%, Hajdú 6.0%, Pozsony 5.8%, Beszterce-Naszód 5.7%, Nyitra 5.0%, Szolnok-Dobóka 5.1%,
- 실라지 4.3%, 콜로즈 4.3%, 세페스 4.3%
유태인, 인구, 백분율 및/또는 총계 단어가 포함된 유명한 인용문:
&ldquo Don: 문을 닫은 이유는 무엇입니까? 모두 문을 닫았습니다.
전당포: 물론입니다. 욤 키푸르입니다.
전당포: Its Yom Kippur, 유대인 휴일.
돈: 그렇습니까? 그렇다면 Kellys와 Gallaghers는 어떻습니까?
전당포: 그들도 문을 닫았습니다. 계약을 체결했습니다. 그들은 Yom Kippur에서 계속 문을 닫고 St. Patricks에서는 열지 않습니다. &rdquo
&mdash빌리 와일더 (b. 1906)
&ldquo 얼마나 많은 속죄가 충분합니까? 폭격은 최소한 부분 지불로 허용되어야 합니다. 연합군의 공세에 의해 제기된 도덕적 문제에 대해 우려하는 우리 젊은이들은 최소한 독일 민간인이 인구 전혀 고통받지 않았습니다. &rdquo
&mdashClive 제임스 (b. 1939)
&ldquo 사실, 내 사업이 합법적이라면 상당한 금액을 공제할 것입니다. 백분율 내 몸의 감가 상각을 위해.
관조적이고 책을 좋아하는 사람들은 사실 문제에 대해 다투지 않고 특정 증인이나 판사에 의해 논쟁을 결정할 수 없기 때문에 다른 사람들보다 더 다툼을 해야 합니다. 그러나 그들이 평화, 즉 진리를 향하는 한, 어느 쪽이든 상관 없습니다. &rdquo
&mdashJohn Donne(c. 1572)
&ldquo 컴퓨터는 빠르고 정확한 계산과 엄청난 양의 정보를 저장하는 데 능숙합니다. 반면에 두뇌는 숫자 분석기만큼 효율적이지 않으며 기억력은 종종 오류 가능성이 매우 높습니다. 기본적인 부정확성은 디자인에 내장되어 있습니다. 두뇌의 장점은 유연성입니다. 예리한 추측과 파악에 있어서는 타의 추종을 불허한다. 총 제공되는 정보의 의미. &rdquo
&mdash제레미 캠벨 (b. 1931)
신생 그룹은 제한된 자원으로 한동안 어려움을 겪었고 범위와 효율성을 높이기 위해 회원 자격을 확대하기로 결정했습니다. 당시 60명 이상의 저명한 미국인들에게 지원을 요청했으며, 회의 날짜는 1909년 2월 12일로 설정되어 에이브러햄 링컨 대통령 탄생 100주년을 기념하기 위한 것이었습니다. 3개월 후까지 회의가 열리지 않았지만 이 날짜를 조직의 창립일로 자주 인용합니다.
1909년 5월 30일 나이아가라 운동 회의가 뉴욕시의 Henry Street Settlement House에서 열렸습니다. 전국 흑인 위원회. Du Bois는 행사를 조직하는 데 핵심적인 역할을 했으며 절차를 주재했습니다. 또한 NAACP의 공동 설립자인 아프리카계 미국인 저널리스트이자 린치 반대 십자군인 Ida B. Wells-Barnett도 참석했습니다. 조직은 1910년 5월에 두 번째 회의를 열었고 회원들은 이름을 유색인종 발전을 위한 전국 연합(National Association for the Advancement of Colored People)으로 선택했습니다. 그 이름은 5월 30일에 공식적으로 채택되었고 NAACP는 1년 후인 1911년에 통합되었습니다. 협회의 헌장에는 그 사명이 설명되어 있습니다.
DuBois는 계속해서 조직에서 중추적인 역할을 했으며 협회 잡지의 편집장을 역임했습니다. 위기, 30,000부 이상 발행되었습니다.
유대인 공동체는 NAACP의 설립과 지속적인 자금 조달에 크게 기여했습니다. 유대인 역사가 하워드 사커(Howard Sachar)는 그의 책에서 이렇게 적고 있다. 미국 유대인의 역사 "1914년에 컬럼비아 대학의 명예 교수인 Joel Spingarn은 NAACP의 회장이 되었고 Jacob Schiff, Jacob Billikopf, 랍비 Stephen Wise와 같은 유대인 지도자들을 이사회에 영입했습니다."  (http://www.myjewishlearning.com/history_community/Modern/Overview_The_Story_19481980/America/PWPolitics/CivilRights.htm)
짐 크로우와 싸우다
1914년까지 이 그룹은 6,000명의 회원과 50개의 지부가 있었고 제1차 세계 대전에서 아프리카계 미국인이 장교로 복무할 수 있는 권리를 얻는 데 영향력이 있었습니다. 이듬해 NAACP는 D.W. 그리피스의 무성영화 국가의 탄생, Ku Klux Klan을 미화시킨 영화.
NAACP는 역사 초기에 인종 차별 및 기타 시민권 부정을 겨냥한 소송에서 주도적인 역할을 시작했습니다. 이는 많은 흑인 시민의 권리를 박탈한 오클라호마주의 차별적인 "할아버지" 규칙에 대한 도전에 중요한 역할을 했습니다. 미국 대법원을 설득하여 판결을 내렸습니다. 뷰캐넌 대 워리 1917년에 주에서는 공식적으로 아프리카계 미국인을 별도의 주거 지역으로 분리할 수 없다고 선언했습니다.
NAACP가 겨우 7살이던 1916년, 회장인 Joel Spingarn은 James Weldon Johnson을 현장 비서로 초대했습니다. 존슨은 베네수엘라 주재 미국 영사이자 저명한 학자이자 칼럼니스트였다. 4년 이내에 Johnson은 NAACP의 회원 수를 9,000명에서 거의 90,000명으로 늘리는 데 중요한 역할을 했습니다. 1920년 Johnson은 조직의 수장으로 선출되었습니다. 그의 지도력하에 향후 10년 동안 NAACP는 로비 및 소송 노력을 확대하여 "미국 흑인"에 대한 평등한 권리와 평등한 보호를 옹호하는 것으로 국제적으로 알려지게 되었습니다.
NAACP는 1차 세계 대전과 2차 세계 대전 사이에 미국 전역의 흑인 린치에 맞서 싸우는 데 많은 에너지를 바쳤습니다. 조직은 월터 F. 화이트를 1919년 10월 아칸소 주 필립스 카운티로 파견하여 보안관 부보안관이 노동조합을 공격한 후 순회하는 백인 자경단과 연방군에 의해 200명 이상의 흑인 소작농이 살해된 Elaine Race Riot을 조사하도록 파견했습니다. 소작인 모임으로 한 명의 백인이 사망했습니다. NAACP는 구타와 감전으로 얻은 증언을 바탕으로 한 달 후 사형을 선고받은 12명의 항소를 조직했고, 무어 대 Dempsey Template:Ussc에서 연방 법원의 감독을 크게 확대한 획기적인 대법원 판결을 얻었습니다. 앞으로 몇 년 동안 주의 형사 사법 시스템.
NAACP는 또한 린치를 금지하는 연방법을 찾는 데 10년 이상을 보냈습니다. 조직은 각 분노를 표시하기 위해 뉴욕 사무실 창에 "A Man Was Lynched 어제"라는 검은 깃발을 정기적으로 표시했습니다.
NAACP는 흑인에 대한 투표권 거부와 그의 반 노동 판결에 대한 지지를 기반으로 John Johnston Parker가 대법원에 지명되는 것을 방지하기 위해 미국 노동 연맹(American Federation of Labor)과 협력하여 성공적인 투쟁을 이끌었습니다. NAACP는 스코츠보로 소년들에 대한 지원을 조직했지만, NAACP는 이러한 사건의 통제와 추구할 전략을 둘러싸고 공산당 및 국제 노동 방어국과의 내전의 대부분을 잃었습니다. 조직은 또한 남부의 "백인 프라이머리" 시스템에 도전하기 위해 소송을 제기했습니다.
인종 차별 대우 폐지
Charles Hamilton Houston과 Thurgood Marshall이 이끄는 NAACP의 법무 부서는 Plessy 대 Ferguson에서 대법원의 판결에 의해 발표된 분리되지만 평등한 원칙을 뒤집기 위해 수십 년에 걸쳐 캠페인을 벌였습니다. 주립 전문학교에서 인종차별에 도전하고 대학 수준에서 Jim Crow를 공격하는 것으로 시작한 캠페인은 브라운 대 교육위원회에서 만장일치로 대법원에서 주정부가 후원하는 초등학교 분리가 위헌이라고 판결했습니다.
그 승리에 힘입어 NAACP는 남부 전역에서 완전한 인종 차별 철폐를 추진했습니다. 1955년 12월 5일부터 E.D. 지역 회장인 닉슨과 지부의 비서관을 역임한 로사 파크스는 앨라배마주 몽고메리에서 버스 보이콧을 조직하는 것을 도왔고, 승객의 3분의 2가 흑인인 도시의 버스에서의 인종 차별에 항의했습니다. 보이콧은 381일 동안 지속됐다.
앨라배마 주는 NAACP가 활동에 대해 해고되거나 폭력적인 보복을 당할 것을 두려워하여 구성원 목록 공개를 거부한 이유로 국경 내에서 활동하는 것을 효과적으로 금지함으로써 대응했습니다. 대법원이 결국 NAACP 대 앨라배마 사건에서 판결을 뒤집었지만, Template:Ussc NAACP는 그 기간 동안 민권 운동에서 주도적 역할을 직접적으로 의존했던 남부 기독교 지도력 회의(Southern Christian Leadership Conference) 및 학생 비폭력 조정 위원회(Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee)와 같은 조직에 상실되었습니다. 아프리카계 미국인의 권리를 증진하기 위한 소송과 입법보다는 행동과 대중 동원이 필요합니다. 당시 회장인 로이 윌킨스는 마틴 루터 킹 주니어 및 기타 민권 지도자들과 운동 내 전략과 명성 문제로 반복적으로 충돌했습니다.
동시에 NAACP는 브라운 대법원의 결정을 사용하여 전국의 학교와 공공 시설에 대한 인종 차별 철폐를 촉구했습니다. 아칸소 주 지부의 데이지 베이츠 회장은 아칸소 주 리틀록에 있는 공립학교를 통합하려는 Little Rock Nine의 캠페인을 주도했습니다.
1960년대 중반까지 NAACP는 민권 입법을 촉구함으로써 민권 운동에서 어느 정도 우위를 되찾았습니다. 일자리와 자유를 위한 워싱턴 행진은 1963년 8월 28일에 있었습니다. 의회는 1964년 고용, 교육 및 공공 시설에서의 인종 차별을 종식시키기 위한 민권 법안을 통과시켰고, 1965년에는 투표권 법안을 통과시켰습니다.
1975년 Kivie Kaplan이 사망한 후 변호사이자 성직자인 Benjamin Hooks가 1977년 NAACP의 전무이사로 선출되었습니다.
1990년대: 위기와 회복된 힘
1990년대에 NAACP는 부채에 직면했고 두 명의 고위 관리의 해고는 깊은 위기에 처한 조직의 그림을 더했습니다.
1993년 NAACP의 이사회는 Jesse Jackson 목사보다 Benjamin Chavis 목사를 간사직으로 선출했습니다. A controversial figure, Chavis was ousted eighteen months later by the same board that hired him, accused of using NAACP funds for an out-of-court settlement in a sexual harassment lawsuit.  (http://static.highbeam.com/n/newyorkamsterdamnews/october081994/betrayalthecaseagainstbenchavis)
Following the dismissal of Chavis, Myrlie Evers-Williams narrowly defeated NAACP chairperson William Gibson in 1995, after Gibson was accused of overspending and mismanagement of the organization's funds. In 1996 Congressman Kweisi Mfume a Democratic Congressman from Maryland and former head of the Congressional Black Caucus, was named the organization's president. Three years later strained finances forced the organization to drastically cut its staff, from 250 in 1992 to just fifty.
However, in the second half of the 1990s, the organization restored its finances, permitting the NAACP National Voter Fund to launch a major get-out-the-vote offensive in the 2000 U.S. presidential elections. 10.5 million African Americans cast their ballots in the election, one million more than four years before, and the NAACP's effort was credited by observers as playing a significant role in handing Democrat Al Gore several states where the election was close, such as Pennsylvania and Michigan.
1909 to 1949
1909: On February 12, the National Negro Committee was formed. Founders included Ida Wells-Barnett, W.E.B. DuBois, Henry Moscowitz, Mary White Ovington, Oswald Garrison Villiard, William English Walling.
1910: The NAACP began court fights with the Pink Franklin case. It involved a black farmhand, who killed a policeman in self-defense when the officer broke into his home at 3 a.m. to arrest him on a civil charge.
1913: The NAACP protested President Woodrow Wilson's official introduction of segregation to the federal government.
1914: Professor Emeritus Joel Spingarn of Columbia University became chairman of the NAACP and recruited for its board such Jewish leaders as Jacob Schiff, Jacob Billikopf, and Rabbi Stephen Wise.
1915: The NAACP organizes a nationwide protest against D.W. Griffith's racially inflammatory and bigoted silent film, 국가의 탄생.
1917: 에 Buchanan v. Warley, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that states can not restrict and officially segregate African Americans into residential districts. Also, the NAACP won a battle to enable African-Americans to be commissioned as officers in World War I. Six hundred officers were commissioned, and 700,000 black men registered for the draft.
1918: After pressure by the NAACP, President Woodrow Wilson made a public statement against lynching.
1919: The NAACP sends Walter F. White to Arkansas to investigate the murder of several hundred black tenant farmers in October. The NAACP organizes the appeals on behalf of more than a hundred African-American defendants convicted in mob-dominated judicial proceedings the following month.
1920: To ensure that everyone, especially the Ku Klux Klan, knew the NAACP would not be intimidated, the annual conference was held in Atlanta, considered one of the most active areas of the Klan.
1922: The NAACP placed large ads in major newspapers to present the facts about lynching.
1930: The first of successful protests by the NAACP against Supreme Court justice nominees is begun against John Parker, who favored laws that discriminated against African-Americans.
1935: NAACP lawyers Charles Hamilton Houston and Thurgood Marshall won a legal fight to admit a black student to the University of Maryland Law School.
1939: After the Daughters of the American Revolution barred acclaimed contralto Marian Anderson from performing at their Constitution Hall, the NAACP moved her concert to the Lincoln Memorial, where more than 75,000 people attended.
1941: During World War II, the NAACP took part in the effort to ensure that President Franklin Roosevelt would order a nondiscrimination policy in war-related industries and federal employment.
1950 to 1990
1954: After years of fighting segregation in public schools, under the leadership of special counsel Thurgood Marshall, the NAACP won 브라운 대 교육 위원회. The historic U.S. Supreme Court decision barred school segregation.
1955: NAACP member and volunteer Rosa Parks is arrested and fined for refusing to give up her seat on a segregated bus in Montgomery, Alabama. This action became a catalyst for the largest grassroots civil rights movement in the U.S. It was spearheaded through the collective efforts of the NAACP, Southern Christian Leadership Conference, and other black organizations.
1957: LDF spun off as a separate organization.
1960: In Greensboro, North Carolina, members of the NAACP Youth Council started a series of nonviolent sit-ins at segregated lunch counters. These protests eventually led to more than 60 stores officially desegregating their counters.
1963: After one of his many successful mass rallies for civil rights, the NAACP's first field director in Mississippi, Medgar Evers, is assassinated in front of his home in Jackson, Mississippi.
1963: The NAACP pushed for passage of the Equal Employment Opportunity Act.
1964: The U.S. Supreme Court ended the eight-year effort of Alabama officials to ban NAACP activities.
1965: Amidst threats of violence and efforts of state and local governments, the NAACP registered more than 80,000 voters in the South.
1979: The NAACP initiates the first bill ever signed by a governor that allows voter registration in high schools. Soon after, twenty-four states followed suit.
1981: The NAACP led the effort to extend the Voting Rights Act for another twenty-five years. To cultivate economic empowerment, the NAACP established the Fair Share Program with major corporations across the country.
1982: NAACP registered more than 850,000 voters, and through its protests and the support of the Supreme Court, it prevented President Ronald Reagan from giving a tax break to the racially segregated Bob Jones University.
1985: The NAACP led a major anti-apartheid rally in New York City.
1989: the NAACP held a silent march of more than 100,000 people to protest U.S. Supreme Court decisions that have reversed many of the gains made against discrimination.
1990 and on
1991: When avowed Ku Klux Klan leader David Duke ran for the United States Senate in Louisiana, the NAACP started a voter registration campaign that yielded a 76 percent turnout of black voters to defeat Duke.
1995: Myrlie Evers-Williams, the widow of Medgar Evers, was elected to lead the NAACP's board of directors.
1996: Kweisi Mfume left the United States House of Representatives to become the president of the NAACP.
1996: Responding to anti-affirmative action legislation occurring around the country, the NAACP started the Economic Reciprocity Program. Also, in response to increased violence among youth, the NAACP started the "Stop The Violence, Start the Love" campaign.
2000: Accomplishments include television diversity agreements and the largest black voter turnout in 20 years.
2000: On January 17, in Columbia, South Carolina, more than 50,000 people attended a march to protest the flying of the Confederate battle flag. It was the largest civil rights demonstration ever held in the South to date.
Black History: The Niagara Movement
I am one who is critical of most of the black so-called civil rights organizations. Mainly because they are funded by white people and dare, I say if you “follow the money you will get the answer” “he who has the gold makes the rules.” In the case of the NAAP, the fact of the matter is that it was formed by ‘White’ people for the purpose of advancing the economic interests of Jewish people in the United States.
In the beginning, Ida B. Wells was one of the original members, but when she began advocating for ‘Black’ people’s interests, they removed her from the organization. The only other black member was DuBois, who stayed for a short time, but eventually left. In more than one hundred years nothing much has changed. They still put a black face out there that can do nothing but grin!
The association’s charter delineated its mission:
To promote equality of rights and to eradicate caste or race prejudice among the citizens of the United States to advance the interest of colored citizens to secure for them impartial suffrage and to increase their opportunities for securing justice in the courts, education for the children, employment according to their ability and complete equality before law.
In 1905, a group of thirty-two prominent African American leaders met to discuss the challenges facing people of color and possible strategies and solutions. They were expressly concerned by the disenfranchisement of Negro’s in the Southern states, particularly because of Mississippi’s passage of a new constitution in 1890. Also, in the early 1900s legislatures dominated by white Democrats ratified new constitutions and laws creating barriers to voter registration and more complex election rules. Black voter registration and turnout dropped markedly in the South as a result.
Because hotels in the U.S. were segregated, the men convened in Canada at the Erie Beach Hotel on the Canadian side of the Niagara River in Fort Erie, Ontario. As a result, the group came to be known as the Niagara Movement. A year later, three whites joined the group: journalist William E. Walling, social worker Mary White Ovington, and social worker Henry Moskowitz. They met in 1906 at Harper Ferry, West Virginia, and in 1907 in Boston Massachusetts.
The fledgling group struggled for a time with limited resources and internal conflict and disbanded in 1910. Seven of the members of the Niagara Movement joined the Board of Directors of the NAACP, founded in 1909. Although both organizations shared membership and overlapped for a time, the Niagara Movement was a separate organization. Historically it is considered to have had a more radical platform than the NAACP. The Niagara Movement was formed exclusively by African Americans.
This conference resulted in a more influential and diverse organization, where the leadership was predominantly white, and most of whom were Jewish American. In fact, at its founding, the NAACP had only one African American on its executive board – Du Bois. It did not elect a black president until 1975, although executive directors had been African American. The Jewish community contributed greatly to the NAACP’s founding and continued financing. Jewish historian Howard Sachar writes in his book A History of Jews in America “In 1914, Professor Emeritus Joel Spingarn of Columbia University became chairman of the NAACP and recruited for its board the early Jewish-American co-founders and members.”
According to Pbs.org, over the years, Jews have also expressed empathy (capability to share and understand another’s emotion and feelings) with the plight of Blacks. In the early 20th century, Jewish newspapers drew parallels between the Black movement out of the South and the Jews’ escape from Egypt. Pointing out that both Blacks and Jews lived in ghettos, and calling anti-Black riots in the South “pogroms.” Stressing the similarities, rather than the differences, between the Jewish and Black experience in America. Jewish leaders emphasized the idea that both groups would benefit the more America moved toward a society of merit, free of religious, ethnic and racial restrictions.”
Pbs.org further states, “The American Jewish Committee, the American Jewish Congress, and the Anti-Defamation League were central to the campaign against racial prejudice. Jews made substantial financial contributions to many civil rights organizations. About 50 percent of the civil rights attorneys in the South during the 1960s were Jews, as were over 50 percent of the Whites who went to Mississippi in 1964 to challenge Jim Crow Laws.
As a member of the Princeton chapter of the NAACP, Albert Einstein corresponded with Du Bois and in 1946 Einstein called racism “America’s worst disease.” Du Bois continued to play a pivotal role in the organization and served as editor of the association’s magazine, The Crisis, which had a circulation of over 30,000.
Moorfield Storey, who was white, was the president of the NAACP from its founding to 1915. Storey consistently and aggressively championed civil rights not only for blacks but also for Native Americans and immigrants. The board of directors of the NAACP created the Legal Defense Fund in 1939 specifically for tax purposes. It functioned as the NAACP legal department.
Intimidated by the Department of the Treasury and the Internal Revenue Service, the Legal and Educational Defense Fund, Inc., became a separate legal entity in 1957. Although, it was clear that it was to operate in accordance with NAACP policy. After 1961, serious disputes emerged between the two organizations creating considerable confusion in the eyes and minds of the public.
I am for anyone or group with the intention to benefit the dire state of the African American. However, during my research for this piece I only found a few significant achievements over its more than one hundred year history. It appears that this group is funded by whites, and it is they who guide policy in a way to silently suppress the “Negro” then and now. Think about it, if this organization was fighting for black people like the narrative implies – they would have been wiped out like all of the other groups fighting for the freedom of black people! And that’s my thought provoking perspective…
The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and the Long Struggle for Civil Rights in the United States
In 2009 the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People celebrated its 100th anniversary. In the article below historian Susan Bragg provides a brief introduction to the history of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), the oldest continually active civil rights organization in the United States.
Founded in 1909, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) has provided critical institutional support and leadership in the fight against racial inequalities in America. Although sometimes criticized as too moderate or bureaucratic in nature, the NAACP’s repeated legal campaigns eventually overturned the infamous 1896 Supreme Court ruling sanctioning segregation (플레시 대 퍼거슨) and is still a significant political organization to this day.
A violent mob attack on black residents of Springfield, Illinois in 1908 galvanized a handful of progressive white social activists to reach out to African American leaders. Socialist William English Walling, settlement house worker Mary White Ovington, Jewish social worker Henry Moskowitz, and Oswald Garrison Villard, editor of 나라, circulated “The Call” to protest the rise of racial violence and discrimination around the nation. They were joined in this venture by black sociologist W. E. B. Du Bois. Long a critic of the “social uplift” agenda advocated by black educator Booker T. Washington, Du Bois saw the NAACP as both an opportunity to re-invigorate demands for full black civil rights and an important reminder of the national dimensions of Jim Crow. After a series of meetings held in 1909 and 1910, the NAACP emerged as an organization dedicated to protesting racial inequality in American public life.
Over the course of the 20th century, the NAACP explicitly promoted itself as a model of interracial exchange, while also implicitly encouraging activism by both men and women. Initially, formal national leadership positions in the NAACP were largely held by white progressives based in New York City but W. E. B. Du Bois served as editor of the organization’s main source of publicity, 위기. This important journal circulated news of civil rights activism and promoted black art, writing, and poetry with the vision of challenging mainstream stereotypes of African Americans.
African Americans made up the majority of participants of the many local NAACP chapters that spread slowly throughout the nation and by the era of World War I, a new cadre of black male leaders such as James Weldon Johnson and Walter White emerged as national leaders of the organization. At the same time, the organization regularly relied upon black women’s participation, particularly at the branch level. While prominent anti-lynching activist Ida B. Wells-Barnett reported feeling dismissed by both black male leaders and white female progressives associated with the organization, many women associated with the National Association of Colored Women (NACW) supported the goals of the NAACP through fund raising activities and membership drives. By the 1930s, women like Juanita Jackson Mitchell and Ella Baker emerged as important staff workers in the national organization of the NAACP.
The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People challenged racial inequalities largely by publicity and targeted legal challenges, a program initially dictated by the fact that the majority of African Americans lived in the South where direct protest against Jim Crow was dangerous. Such tactics sometimes discouraged grass-roots activism by prioritizing the leadership role of the national staff, yet the NAACP proved successful in winning some important early battles such as overturning the “grandfather clause” (Guinn v. the United States, 1915) and residential segregation ordinances (Buchanan v. Warley, 1917).
The organization also served as an important voice against lynching throughout the 20th century, particularly by lobbying for anti-lynching bills in the 1920s and 1930s. Despite the failure of these legislative efforts, early court victories and increasing national publicity reinforced the NAACP’s commitment to forcing change through political pressure and legal campaigns. Most prominently, a series of NAACP-funded challenges to education inequalities eventually led to Brown v. Topeka 교육 위원회 (1954), the Supreme Court ruling overturning de jure segregation.
The NAACP’s emphasis on civil rights agendas supported its larger cultural vision of American pluralism, but over the years the organization has been repeatedly criticized as narrow or even elitist. 동안 Crisis emerged as a critical source of black creative expression during the Harlem Renaissance of the 1920s, Marcus Garvey’s United Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) gained more members because of its grass roots emphasis on black unity and community development. In the 1930s, the NAACP created influential relationships with northern Democrats through its anti-lynching efforts even as it struggled to assert a strong vision of economic justice. The organization finally built a mass movement during the years of World War II by pressing the “Double V campaign” to integrate the defense industries, partnering with the CIO and other labor unions, and extending branches into the South.
These developments, in combination with the NAACP’s continuing legal campaigns against segregation, provided critical support for the modern Civil Rights movement. At the same time, the NAACP has struggled to both defend itself against criticism from outside pressures and to translate legal victories into broader social change. Defenders of Jim Crow denounced the NAACP as a “radical” organization and sought to restrict its development in southern states. Yet, by the 1960s, the organization also found itself pressured by youth-led protests that rejected the mediating role of the NAACP in favor of direct activism and grass-roots interests. These tensions reflected the larger difficulty of defining the NAACP’s social justice agenda in the years after 브라운 대 보드.
While the NAACP continues to identify and protest various forms of racial inequality in America, finding resolutions to de facto forms of racial discrimination have proven an ongoing challenge. Ultimately, the NAACP remains a powerful watchdog organization, promoting African American opportunity as a gauge of American democratic health.
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Jewish Americans have flourished in America, enjoying immense freedom and opportunities. But like other minorities, Jewish Americans have also faced prejudice, especially during periods of economic hardship or war. During World War I and the Great Depression, Jews were often targeted as scapegoats.
The lynching of Leo Frank, a prominent Jewish businessman in Atlanta, alarmed Jewish Americans in 1915. He was falsely accused and convicted of killing a worker, Mary Phagan, in the pencil factory that he managed. After Georgia Governor John M. Slaton stayed Frank's execution because of a lack of evidence, a mob dragged him from the jail and lynched him. Though an isolated tragedy, it caused a ripple effect of fear. Decades later, in 1986, Frank was granted a posthumous pardon while evidence now points to the guilt of Jim Conley, a janitor in the factory who falsely accused Frank of the murder during the trial.
The Leo Frank incident also led to a resurgence of the Ku Klux Klan (KKK). By the mid-1920s, the KKK claimed to have four million members, more than all the Jews in the United States. In the midst of this turmoil and despite protestations at the time, President Woodrow Wilson nominated Louis D. Brandeis to the Supreme Court in 1916. As the first Jew to serve on the Court, Justice Brandeis had to endure bitter taunts, particularly from fellow justice James C. McReynolds. In the 1920s, Henry Ford, who revolutionized mass production in American industry, relentlessly blamed Jewish Americans for many of the nation's ills in his newspaper, The Dearborn Independent. It was only after World War II that barriers to Jewish Americans began to dissipate in America.
THE JEWISH AMERICANS is a production of JTN Productions WETA Washington, D.C. and David Grubin Productions, Inc.
in association with Thirteen/WNET New York.
Funders for THE JEWISH AMERICANS include The National Endowment for the Humanities Corporation for Public Broadcasting Public Broadcasting Service Nash Family Foundation The Arthur Vining Davis Foundations The Paul & Irma Milstein Foundation The Skirball Foundation The Chais Family Foundation Harry & Belle Krupnick Endowment Fund of the Los Angeles Jewish Community Foundation The Cukier, Goldstein-Goren Foundation Ann B. Friedman The Jesselson Family The Annenberg Foundation Blumenthal Fund Nancy and Morris W. Offit Ruth Ziegler Barbara Zuckerberg.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People in Alabama (NAACP)NAACP March in Athens, 2007 Beginning in 1913, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) was the leading advocate for black constitutional rights in Alabama during the first half of the twentieth century. Other advocacy organizations existed, such as civic and voters' leagues, but Alabama's NAACP branches provided the most consistent and vocal challenge to African Americans' second-class status in society before the modern civil rights movement. White supremacists viewed the NAACP as a threat to the status quo and used intimidation, violence, and the law to eliminate the various branches in the state. Finally, in 1956, the state outlawed the organization outright, which led to a loss of influence. Alabama NAACP branches also faced internal threats to their survival through ineffective leadership and factionalism. Faced with threats of white reprisal, loss of will on the part of some branch officials and members, and competition from the Communist Party, the Alabama NAACP's crusade for racial equality was still able to generate the opposition to disenfranchisement and Jim Crow laws that would later define the 1950s and 1960s. NAACP Leaders in Washington, D.C. The 1940s represented the height of NAACP organizing in Alabama. By the mid-1940s, Alabama boasted 35 branches with nearly 15,000 members. In part, this growth was prompted by a number of successful court cases filed by the national office to challenge discrimination in housing, public spaces, and education, among others. But the phenomenal expansion was primarily a result of black Alabamians' growing outrage with racial biases, heightened by entry into World War II. Racist policies within the military and wartime industries fueled resentment and fostered a spirit of protest. The result was an explosion in NAACP activism in the state and throughout the South. Rosa Parks and Johnnie Carr, 1985 Membership was largely male in the early years of organizing, but African American middle-class women began to join branches in unprecedented numbers beginning in the late 1930s and held important positions in some branches. For instance, women comprised more than 55 percent of the Montgomery branch's total membership during the early 1940s. They composed 20 percent of the branch's Executive Committee and chaired the Veterans' Affairs Committee. Several woman held the post of secretary of the Montgomery NAACP—an extremely important position given this officer's role as liaison with the New York headquarters. Two of the best-known secretaries of the Montgomery branch were Johnnie Carr and Rosa Parks, who both participated in the Montgomery Bus Boycott and came to symbolize the role of black women in the fight for full rights. Activist and cook Georgia Gilmore organized the "Club from Nowhere," a group of women who cooked and sold food to raise money for the boycott and also accepted anonymous donations, and she also fed boycotters and movement leaders in her Montgomery home. John LeFlore Even the well-run branches faced immense challenges in carrying out the NAACP's goals. The national organization had been founded in 1909 to secure blacks' complete citizenship rights, chiefly through legal efforts, lobbying, and the media. But confronting white supremacy in Alabama, using these and other methods, could result in intimidation on the job, firings, physical harm, and sometimes death. W. E. Morton, secretary of the Mobile branch, was nearly killed by a white mob in 1921 as he conducted NAACP business in nearby Camden. John LeFlore, Mobile branch secretary from 1926 to 1956, endured continual harassment from his white post office supervisors because of his NAACP activities. In the 1930s, police arrested Earnest Taggart as he posted flyers announcing the Birmingham branch's anti-lynching crusade and issued bogus traffic citations to NAACP members during the branch's campaign against police violence. In the 1940s, Birmingham law enforcement officers snatched NAACP buttons from the clothing of local branch members amid the organization's ongoing effort to end police brutality. Autherine Lucy, 1956 Alabama branches used legal means to overturn racial zoning and racially discriminating public teacher' salaries, and they hired lawyers to represent African Americans charged with crimes against whites, such as rape or murder, and used the courts to prosecute whites accused of crimes against African Americans. By the time the Montgomery Bus Boycott began in December 1955, Alabama NAACP activism had created a climate of organized, determined racial protest. The activities executed by the state's branches had achieved enhanced employment opportunities, legal measures calling for more equitable teacher salaries, court decrees outlawing discrimination in voting and racial zoning, and improved interstate railroad accommodations. In Mobile, the branch's protest against the unfair treatment of blacks on municipal buses led the city to implement a "first-come, first served" seating arrangement in 1942. In 1956, NAACP agitation also forced the University of Alabama to admit, if only for a few days, Autherine Lucy. Most importantly, the branches' energetic efforts saved blacks from unjust prison terms as well as from death sentences imposed on the basis of race. Also in 1956, the national office provided legal assistance to Montgomery blacks in the Browder v. Gayle case, which declared Jim Crow bus service unconstitutional.
The NAACP never regained its original prominence in the state. But NAACP branches had, over the years, created the groundswell that would place Alabama at the center of the modern struggle for social justice. Currently, the Alabama NAACP has approximately 35 branches that focus their efforts on disaster relief and continuing instances of racial prejudice, such as job discrimination. The state president is Edward Vaughn, former Michigan State Representative and Alabama native the state NAACP headquarters is in Dothan. Branch offices are located in Eufaula, Barbour County Clanton, Chilton County and Mobile, Mobile County.
Autrey, Dorothy A. "The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People in Alabama, 1913–1952." Ph. D diss., University of Notre Dame, 1985.
오렌지 카운티, county in California, U.S. In 2005 there were some 3 million people living in Orange County, with the Jewish population estimated at 60,000,000. 2009 estimates put the Jewish population between 80,000 and 100,000.
Orange County Jewish communities include Orange, Anaheim, Santa Ana, Irvine, Yorba Linda, Garden Grove, Laguna Beach, Laguna Hills, Huntington Beach, Tustin, Fountain Valley, Newport Beach, Westminster, Fullerton, Mission Viejo, and Costa Mesa. Most Jews live in Irvine, Newport Beach, Mission Viejo, and Aliso Viejo.
Southern California or California Southland Jewry is an interrelated community in Santa Barbara, Ventura, Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, Imperial, and San Diego counties. In climate, water supply, politics, agriculture and industry it differs from the rest of California. Rivalry has long existed between the northern and southern areas of California. While Orange County and neighboring Los Angeles border each other geographically and share some similarities, the two communities are quite distinct.
The primary motivation for settlement in Southern California was not a search for religious freedom but economic opportunity. Many Jews who came to the Southland in the early days had first gone to San Francisco, from which place Jews quickly dispersed throughout the entire American and Canadian West. The Gold Rush brought Jews to Southern California more for trade and agriculture than for mining. The area was known in biblical language as the place of ⋊ttle on a thousand hills."
Orange County Jewry began in 1858, with the arrival of Bavarian immigrant Benjamin Dreyfus to the town of Anaheim. In the early period the best known Jewish citizen of Orange County was Dreyfus, who was a vintner, general agriculturalist, and mayor of Anaheim in 1881 and 1882. Most of Orange County's first Jews were German, including Louis Wartenberg, Morris Goodman, the Reinhaus family, Jacob and Herman Stern, and Joseph Goodman.
Santa Ana was platted in 1870, and in 1872 Jews were located there as merchants. Three Jews held the first High Holy Day services in Anaheim in 1874. In that year Jews were also found in the nearby mission town of San Juan Capistrano, the most notable being Max Mendelson. In 1876 the first Jew reached Tustin. The community of Anaheim was quiet in 1880 when Jewish stores were closed for Yom Kippur, the local press reported.
French Jews were perhaps 10% of all the Jews who arrived during the Gold Rush decades. They came from Alsace, Marseilles, and Paris. Among them were Algerian Jews such as Hippolyte Cahen in Anaheim in 1878.
In the beginning of the 20 th century Sephardi Jews from the island of Rhodes immigrated to Southern California. Other Sephardim arrived during the 1910s and 1920s. Most of the newcomers did not speak English, but the Ladino they spoke was close to the Mexican Spanish of California. Sephardi Jews generally moved first to Seattle, Washington, then later on to California.
Santa Ana and Tustin Jewry - 25 families in all - began establishing a congregation in 1919, to meet the needs of their children for Jewish education.
From the 1930s onward there has been a massive influx of population to Southern California, and Orange County has benefited from the post-World War II development of the region as well as the movement of major corporations and hi-tech industries to Southern California. Jewish life was stimulated by a large influx of British, Canadian, Israeli, Latin American, North African, Russian, South African, and Iranian Jews, who established their own organizations as well as integrating into the older communities. A large number of Hungarian Jews reached the Southland after the Soviets crushed the movement to liberalization in that country in 1956. Iranian Jews have sent their children to all-day schools and have a higher rate of synagogue affiliation than the average. Russian and Israeli non-Orthodox immigrants tend to be High Holiday Jews.
The Merage Jewish Community Center, one of the largest in the United States, with its impressive community campus in Irvine, is an important presence in the community. It is home to Jewish Federation Orange County, the Bureau of Jewish Education, Jewish Family Service, B'nai B'rith Youth Organization, the Community Foundation, Taglit, the Orange County Jewish Historical Society, and Camp Yofi.
Synagogue life is local and Jews are spread throughout the county, but communal life is concentrated in the areas of greatest populations.
There are 38 synagogues in Orange County of every denomination. There are Conservative congregations in several cities: Congregation B'nai Israel in Tustin, Congregation Eilat in Mission Viejo, Surf City Synagogue of Huntington Beach, Temple Beth Emet of Anaheim, Temple Isaiah of Newport Beach. Reform congregations are also found throughout the county: Congregation B'nai Tzedek in Fountain Valley, Congregation Shir Ha Maɺlot in Irvine, Reform Temple of Laguna Woods, Temple Bat Yahm in Newport Beach, Temple Beth David in Westminster, Temple Beth El of South Orange County in Aliso Viejo, Temple Beth Ohr in La Mirada, Temple Beth Sholom in Santa Ana (Orange County's first synagogue), Temple Beth Tikvah in Fullerton. There are Orthodox Congregations: Beth Jacob Congregation of Irvine, Beth Torah Synagogue of Laguna Woods, Young Israel of Orange County in Irvine. There is also a non-denominational congregation: Temple Judea of Laguna Woods.
Chabad has established a presence in Aliso Viejo, Cypress/Los Alamitos, Huntington Beach, Irvine, North Irvine, Laguna Beach, Laguna Niguel, Mission Viejo, Newport Beach, San Clemente, Rancho Santa Margarita, Tustin, and Yorba Linda.
The Sephardi community has two congregations: Ohr Yisrael Sephardic Congregation of Orange County in Irvine, Beth Jacob Sephardic Minyan, also in Irvine.
Rabbi Arnold Rachlis, a former White House Fellow and a leading voice in the Reconstructionist movement, is the rabbi of University Synagogue in Irvine, the sole Reconstructionist congregation and one of the largest synagogues in Orange County.
Humanistic Judaism is represented by the Pacific Community of Secular Humanistic Jews and the Orange County Society for Humanistic Judaism.
There are two day schools in the community: Tarbut V'Torah Community Day School in Irvine and the Hebrew Academy in Huntington Beach.
Among the national organizations that have established offices in Orange County are the American Jewish Committee (AJC) and the Anti-Defamation League (ADL), which have a large presence. Hadassah, Hillel, the Israeli Scouts and B'nai B'rith Youth Organization are also present.
Hillel serves all the campuses in Orange County, including UC Irvine, Chapman University, Cal State Fullerton, and the surrounding colleges. Chapman University has a strong Holocaust education program that not only serves the campus but the community at large and sponsors annual activities in the schools, including a writing contest and teacher training. It recently established a Holocaust Center, which includes a small display of Holocaust artifacts, in its new library, sponsored by the Samueli Family and local philanthropists.
Heritage Pointe and Bubbe & Zayde's Place provides care for the elderly.
Although Jews are an accepted part of Orange County life, the county used to have the reputation of being the center of significant antisemitism. In the late 1970s, The Institute for Historical Review, a Holocaust denial organization, once posted a $50,000 reward for anyone who could prove that the Holocaust happened. Much to their chagrin, Auschwitz survivor and Newport Beach resident Mel Mermelstein took up the challenge and prevailed in court. Mermelstein went against the common advice of the Jewish professional community to quarantine the hate groups and not to engage in discourse. The case drew national attention and was the subject of a television movie. Several mayors have been Jewish two in Irvine and others in Orange County.
출처: Encyclopaedia Judaica. © 2008 The Gale Group. 판권 소유.
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