1대 버킹엄 공작 조지 빌리어스

1대 버킹엄 공작 조지 빌리어스


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George Villiers 경의 둘째 아들인 George Villiers는 1592년 8월 28일 Leicestershire의 Brooksby에서 태어났습니다. Villiers는 타고난 학자는 아니었지만 "춤, 펜싱, 승마와 같은 기술에 뛰어났으며, 남다른 미모와 매너의 매력으로 궁중 생활을 위한 준비를 갖추었다"고 말했다. (1)

1611년 Villiers는 그의 멘토이자 발기인으로 활동한 추밀원의 신사인 John Graham 경을 만났습니다. 그는 Villiers가 Villiers를 즉시 좋아한 King James I에게 소개되도록 주선했습니다. 그의 통치 기간 동안 그는 매력적인 젊은이들과 교제했으며 Maurice Ashley에 따르면 그는 젊었을 때 동성애 감정을 키웠습니다. (2)

1589년 덴마크의 앤과 결혼하여 그녀가 헨리(1594)와 찰스(1600)를 낳았지만 제임스 킹은 아내와 거의 시간을 보내지 않고 "그가 도울 수 있는 것 이상으로 한 여자와 같은 곳에서 살기를 거부했다. . 그리고 그의 즉위 직후 여왕은 덴마크 하우스에 자리를 잡았고 그의 지속적인 발전에 거의 동행하지 않았습니다." (삼)

Jenny Wormald가 지적한 바와 같이: "동성애적 감정에 반대되는 동성애 행위를 왕에게 돌리더라도 최소한 제임스는 양성애자였고 그의 세 명의 전임자들이 실패한 곳에서 성공했다는 사실을 거의 잊어버릴 위험이 있습니다. , 왕좌의 상속인을 제공하는 데 있어 이전 반세기 후에 환영받는 안도감으로 다가왔습니다." (4)

그의 신하 중 한 명인 Anthony Weldon은 James가 여러 "남성 연인들"을 가지고 있었고 공개적으로 자신의 감정을 표현한 죄를 지었다고 주장합니다. 세상에서 많은 사람들이 내 경험 못지않게 내 표현을 능가하는 몇 가지 일을 퇴직자 집에서 상상하게 만들었습니다." (5)

James는 Villiers가 매우 매력적이라는 것을 알았고 "사냥 표범처럼 아름답다"고 여겨졌습니다. (6) Godfrey Goodman 주교는 Villiers가 "영국 전역에서 가장 잘 생긴 남자, 그의 팔다리가 너무 잘 뭉쳐져 있고, 그의 대화가 매우 유쾌하고 매우 다정한 기질을 가진 남자"라고 말했습니다. (7)

그가 Villiers를 만났을 때 King은 Robert Carr와 낭만적으로 관련되어 있었습니다. 그는 20세 때 왕이 가장 좋아하는 사람이 되었고 이듬해 침실의 신랑이 되었습니다. 왕은 다른 사람들과 이야기하는 동안에도 "공개석에서 카의 뺨을 꼬집고 옷을 다듬고 사랑스럽게 쳐다볼 것"이라고 보고되었습니다. 그 후 8년 동안 Carr는 왕실의 열광에 대한 물질적 보상을 꾸준히 축적했으며 영국 전역에 큰 영지를 부여했습니다. (8)

1613년 Carr는 4대 Norfolk 공작 Thomas Howard의 아들인 Thomas Howard 제독의 딸인 Frances Howard와 결혼할 계획을 세우기 시작했습니다. Howard 가족은 King James에 대한 영향력이 커지고 있었습니다. 여기에는 1대 노샘프턴 백작 헨리 하워드, 애런델 백작 토머스 하워드, 에핑엄 영주 찰스 하워드 등이 포함되며, 이들은 모두 로마 가톨릭 교회에 호의적이었고 스페인 왕 필립 3세와 동맹을 원했습니다. 이 책의 저자인 존 필립스 케년(John Philipps Kenyon)에 따르면 스튜어트 (1958): "하워드 부부는 제임스에게 그의 아들을 스페인의 필립 3세의 딸과 결혼시키고 그녀의 막대한 지참금을 사용하여 영국 교회를 로마와 화해시키려는 궁극적인 목적으로 빚을 갚도록 촉구했습니다." (9)

Thomas Overbury 경은 Howard 가족의 영향력이 커지는 것을 우려하여 결혼을 심하게 반대했습니다. 그는 제임스에게 자신의 감정을 알렸습니다. 그는 그의 불만을 거부하고 그에게 외국에 사는 것을 의미하는 대사직을 제안했습니다. 그는 직위를 거부하자 1613년 4월 21일 체포되어 런던탑으로 끌려갔다. Overbury는 Carr에게 보낸 편지에서 Francis Howard의 전생에 대한 정보를 공개하겠다고 위협했습니다. Overbury는 1613년 9월 15일에 사망했습니다. 10일 후 Carr는 Howard와 결혼했습니다. (10)

1614년에 카는 체임벌린 경으로 임명되고 서머셋 백작이라는 칭호를 받았습니다. 그러나 그는 또한 그에게 왕실 술잔의 직위를 부여함으로써 Villiers에 대한 그의 사랑을 나타내었고 1615년에 기사 작위를 받고 침실의 신사가 되었습니다. 그는 또한 1,000파운드의 연간 연금을 받았습니다. Carr는 그의 새로운 라이벌에 대해 불평했습니다. James는 Villiers에 대한 사랑을 포기할 의사가 없음을 분명히 하는 편지를 작성하여 응답했습니다. 그는 Carr가 "이상한 조짐, 열정, 분노, 오만함의 기이한 흐름"과 "내 방에 누워 있는 것을 꺼리는 것"에 대해 "수백 번이나 진심으로 반대를 간청했음에도 불구하고" Carr를 꾸짖었습니다. (11)

1615년 8월, Villiers와 James는 왕이 진행 중인 Farnham 성에서 같은 침대를 차지했습니다. Roger Lockyer는 이것이 그 자체로 두 남자가 동성애 관계를 가졌다는 것을 증명하지 않는다고 주장합니다. King과 Villiers는 새로운 국면에 접어들었고 Somerset의 호의의 날이 세어졌습니다." (12)

저자 스튜어트 (1958)은 다음과 같이 지적했습니다. "22세의 George Villiers는 여성다움 직전에 떨리는 다소 지나치게 익은 남성적인 매력을 가지고 있었습니다. 그리고 짧은 수염, 정교하게 휘어진 입, 섹슈얼한 자의 짙은 푸른 눈... 그의 지능은 낮은 수준에 존재했지만 의심할 여지 없이 존재했습니다... 버킹엄의 소년 같은 경쾌함은 그가 제임스를 가차 없이 넘길 수 있게 해주었습니다. " (13)

Villiers는 또한 왕의 수상인 Francis Bacon 경의 지지를 받았습니다. 그는 또한 Howard 가족의 영향력이 커지는 것을 두려워했고 James에게 Thomas Overbury의 죽음에 대한 조사를 명령하도록 격려했습니다. 결국 로버트 카와 그의 아내 프랜시스 카는 살인 혐의로 법정에 출두했다. 프랜시스는 완전한 자백을 했지만 로버트는 자신이 오버버리의 죽음과 아무 관련이 없다고 주장했다. 법원은 그를 믿지 않았고 부부는 사형을 선고받았다. 제임스는 그의 연인이 처형되는 것을 거부했고 둘 다 런던탑에 수감되었습니다. (14)

Villiers는 권력에서 Robert Carr를 제거함으로써 이익을 얻을 수 있는 좋은 위치에 있었습니다. 1616년 1월 제임스는 그를 말의 주인으로 삼았고 8월 27일에는 그를 빌리에 자작으로 만들고 30,000파운드 가치의 왕관 땅을 주었습니다. 그는 또한 1년에 약 4,000파운드에 달하는 왕실 법정에서 변론을 등록하는 수석 서기가 되었습니다. 1617년 1월 6일 그는 버킹엄 백작으로 승격되었고 다음 달에는 추밀원의 의원이 되었습니다. 왕은 자신이 가장 좋아하는 사람에 대한 감정을 숨기지 않았습니다. (15)

1617년 9월에 왕은 버킹엄과의 우정을 변호했습니다. "나는 신도 천사도 아닌 다른 사람과 같은 사람입니다. 그러므로 나는 사람처럼 행동하고 다른 사람보다 나에게 소중한 사람들을 더 사랑한다고 고백합니다. 나는 버킹엄 백작을 다른 누구보다, 그리고 여기 모인 여러분보다 더 사랑합니다. 나는 나를 대신하여 말하고 싶습니다. 그것이 결점으로 생각되지 않기를 바랍니다. 예수 그리스도께서도 그렇게 하셨기 때문입니다. 그러므로 나는 비난받을 수 없다. 그리스도에게는 그의 요한이 있고 나는 나의 조지가 있다." (16)

James는 그를 "Steenie"(성서에서 "천사의 얼굴"을 가졌다고 묘사하는 St. Stephen에 대한 언급)라고 불렀던 버킹엄과 깊은 사랑에 빠졌습니다. 존 필립스 케년(John Philipps Kenyon)에 따르면, 그는 또한 그를 "사랑하는 연인", "사랑스러운 아이와 아내"라고 불렀습니다. 한번은 버킹엄이 짧은 휴가를 보내고 있을 때 제임스가 그에게 편지를 보내 돌아오도록 요청했습니다. 이 밤이 편안하고 행복합니다." (17)

야고보는 로마 카톨릭 교회에 호의적이었고 그의 아들 샤를이 스페인 왕 필립 3세의 막내 딸 마리아 안나와 결혼해야 한다는 결론에 이르렀습니다. 버킹엄은 이 정책을 지지했지만 영국 의회에서 반대했고 1621년에는 거부법의 시행, 스페인에 대한 해군 캠페인, 웨일즈 왕자의 개신교 결혼을 요구했습니다. (18)

Lord Chancellor인 Francis Bacon은 제안된 결혼에 반대하는 캠페인을 주도했으며 다른 의원들과 함께 Charles가 개신교 공주와 결혼해야 한다고 제안했습니다. 제임스는 하원은 오로지 국내 문제에만 관심을 갖고 외교 정책 결정에 관여해서는 안 된다고 주장했다. (19)

왕의 지지자들은 베이컨을 뇌물과 부패 혐의로 고소했고 그는 상원에서 탄핵당했습니다. 15세기 이래로 왕실의 위대한 장교가 의회에서 전복된 적이 없습니다. (20) 베이컨은 £40,000의 벌금과 "왕의 뜻에 따른 투옥"을 선고받았다. 그는 또한 주에서 모든 공직이나 고용이 금지되었으며 의회에 앉거나 법원의 가장자리(12마일) 안에 들어오는 것이 금지되었습니다. 벌금은 징수되지 않았고 런던탑의 투옥 기간은 3일에 불과했습니다. (21)

James는 패배를 받아들이기를 거부했고 Charles에게 스페인어와 최신 대륙 댄스 스텝을 가르칠 수 있도록 주선했습니다. 1623년 2월 찰스는 버킹엄 공작과 비밀리에 스페인 왕실 가족을 만나기 위해 마드리드로 여행을 갔다. 그는 "훌륭한 신사로 성장했다"고 묘사되었지만 그는 또한 그가 눈에 띄지 않게 보였고 키는 5피트 4인치에 불과했습니다. (22) 이 기간 동안 Charles는 Buckingham의 정치적 사상에 강한 영향을 받았습니다. (23)

John Morrill은 다음과 같이 지적했습니다. "외교적 교착 상태를 극복하기 위한 방법으로 개인적인 구애를 하기로 한 Charles의 결정은 그의 자신감이 커졌다는 표시입니다. 그는 이제 일반적으로 정치 대리인으로 활동하여 추밀원, 외국 대사를 만났습니다. , 그리고 버킹엄 공작은 때로는 아버지의 지시에 따라 때로는 독립적으로 결혼했습니다. 스페인으로 여행을 가서 대면 협상을 통해 결혼 생활을 마무리하기로 한 결정은 그의 성숙을 위한 한 걸음이었습니다." (24)

스페인 협상가들은 찰스를 시합의 조건으로 로마 카톨릭으로 개종할 것을 요구했다. 그들은 또한 영국에서 가톨릭을 관용하고 형법을 폐지할 것을 주장했습니다. 결혼 후 마리아 안나는 영국이 조약의 모든 조건을 따를 때까지 스페인에 머물러야 했습니다. Charles는 의회가 이 거래를 결코 수락하지 않을 것임을 알고 신부 없이 영국으로 돌아갔습니다. (25)

이제 외교 정책을 바꾸기로 결정되었고 제임스는 이제 샤를과 왕의 누이인 헨리에타 마리아의 결혼을 포함하는 프랑스의 루이 13세와의 동맹 가능성에 대해 이야기를 시작했습니다. 가톨릭 공주가 개신교와 결혼한 것은 전례가 없는 일이었습니다. 교황 우르바노 8세는 그 조약에 "왕비와 그녀의 자녀, 그리고 그녀의 집안의 종교적 권리에 대한 약속이 포함되어 있으며, 별도의 비밀 문서에서는 카를로스가 가톨릭교도에 대한 형법의 시행을 중단하기로 약속했다"고 확신했을 때만 이를 허락했습니다. (26)

1624년 2월 버킹엄 공작은 의회 의원 대부분을 새로운 반스페인 정책으로 설득하고 프랑스와 조약을 협상했습니다. 그러나 제안된 결혼이 로마 카톨릭에 대한 더 많은 관용을 수반할 것이라는 점은 의회에 설명되지 않았습니다. (27)

이러한 협상으로 인해 의회는 제임스 왕에 대한 신뢰를 잃었습니다. 그들은 더 이상 그를 신뢰하지 않았고 그는 몇 가지 양보를 해야만 했습니다. 여기에는 왕이 개인에게 독점권을 부여하는 것을 금지하는 독점법이 포함되었습니다. James는 또한 당시 국가가 겪고 있던 경제 위기를 다루기 위해 의회와 긴밀히 협력하기로 동의했습니다. (28)

제임스 1세는 1625년 3월 27일에 사망했습니다. 버킹엄은 이제 새 왕의 가장 중요한 고문이 되었습니다. Charles는 5월 1일 Notre Dame 교회 문에서 대리인으로 15세의 Henrietta Maria와 결혼했습니다. Charles는 6월 13일 Dover에서 그녀를 만났고 뼈가 작고 몸집이 작으며 "그녀의 나이에 비해 다소 작은" 것으로 묘사되었습니다. (29) 또 다른 소식통은 그녀가 "괴상한 사춘기, 거대한 눈, 뼈가 있는 손목, 돌출된 이빨, 최소한의 체형"이라고 말했습니다. (30) Caroline M. Hibbard는 그녀가 "갈색 머리와 검은 눈, 그리고 거의 모든 관찰자들이 지적하는 달콤함과 재치의 조합"을 가지고 있다고 주장하면서 보다 긍정적인 이미지를 제공합니다. (31)

영국 하원의 많은 의원들은 왕이 로마 가톨릭과 결혼하는 것이 개혁 영국 국교회의 공식 설립을 저해할 것을 우려하여 반대했습니다. 청교도들은 헨리에타 마리아가 13세가 될 때까지 자신의 종교를 자유롭게 수행하고 자녀를 양육할 책임을 지게 될 것이라고 왕이 약속했다는 소식을 들었을 때 특히 불쾌했습니다. 왕이 2일 즉위했을 때 1626년 2월 웨스트민스터 사원(Westminster Abbey)에서 그의 아내는 개신교 종교 의식에 참여하기를 거부했기 때문에 그의 옆에 없었습니다. (32)

이때 루이 13세는 프랑스에서 개신교(위그노)와 내전을 벌이고 있었다. 의회는 위그노를 돕고 싶었지만 샤를은 아내나 처남을 화나게 하고 싶지 않아 거부했습니다. 결국 8척의 함대를 프랑스로 보내기로 합의했습니다. 그러나 마지막 순간에 샤를은 남자들에게 루이 13세에 대항하기보다는 오히려 그를 위해 싸워야 한다는 명령을 보냈습니다. 선장과 선원들은 이 명령을 받아들이기를 거부하고 프랑스군과 싸웠다. (33)

찰스는 스페인에 전쟁을 선포할 용의가 있었다. 영국 의회는 유럽의 육지 전쟁에 직접 개입하기보다 신대륙의 스페인 식민지에 대한 비교적 저렴한 해군 공격을 선호했으며, 스페인 보물 함대를 점령하기를 희망했으며 14만 파운드의 보조금만 지급했는데 이는 불충분한 금액이었습니다. 찰스의 전쟁 계획을 위해. (34)

Charles는 이 결정에 실망하여 다른 의회를 소집했습니다. 이번에는 버킹엄 공작이 "자신의 정책을 옹호하고, 스페인에 대한 해전을 포함하여 전쟁에 대한 자신의 공약을 확인하고, 왕의 재정적 의무에 대해 자세히 설명했습니다"라는 긴 연설을 했습니다. 그러나 그들은 경기 침체기에 더 많은 세금을 감당할 수 없다고 지적했습니다. 찰스는 의회를 해산함으로써 대응했다. (35)

1627년 여름, 버킹엄은 프랑스의 라로셸(La Rochelle)에서 포위된 그의 새로운 위그노 동맹을 도우려고 시도했습니다. 7월 12일 영국군은 100척의 배와 6,000명의 병사로 구성된 사블랑소에 도착했습니다. 1,200명의 보병과 200명의 기병으로 구성된 프랑스군은 섬의 총독인 Marquis de Toiras 휘하의 사구 뒤에서 상륙을 거부했지만 영국의 교두보가 유지되었습니다. 포위는 10월까지 계속되었고, 그 동안 그는 7,000명의 병력 중 4,000명 이상을 잃었습니다. (36)

하원에서 버킹엄의 주요 비평가인 존 엘리엇 경은 왕의 주요 보좌관에 대한 탄핵 절차를 선동했습니다. 1626년 5월 찰스는 지지의 표시로 버킹엄을 케임브리지 대학의 총장으로 지명했고 엘리엇을 하원에서 체포했습니다. 그의 투옥은 많은 항의를 불러일으켰고 왕은 엘리엇을 석방하도록 명령해야 했습니다. 그러나 찰스는 버킹엄을 해산하는 것을 거부하고 대신 의회를 해산했습니다. (37)

왕은 버킹엄을 계속 보호했지만 대중의 미움을 받아 1628년 8월 23일 포츠머스의 그레이하운드 펍에서 칼에 찔려 사망했습니다. 암살자는 이전의 군사 모험에서 부상을 입었고 버킹엄에 의해 승진하기 위해 넘어졌다고 믿었던 육군 장교인 John Felton이었습니다. 그러나 그는 자신의 행동이 하원에 대한 자신의 신념에 근거한 것이며 "공작을 죽이면 국가에 큰 봉사를 해야 한다"는 것을 분명히 했습니다. (38)

22세의 George Villiers는 지나치게 익은 남성적인 매력을 가지고 있어 여성스러움 직전에 떨고 있었습니다. 키가 크고 비율이 아름다우며 짙은 밤색 머리와 짧은 수염으로 장식된 하트 모양의 얼굴, 절묘하게- 굽은 입과 섹슈얼리티의 짙은 푸른 눈...

그의 지능은 낮은 수준에 존재했지만 의심할 여지 없이 존재했습니다... 버킹엄의 소년 같은 경쾌함은 그가 제임스를 가차 없이 건널 수 있게 해주었고 오히려 영향력을 강화했습니다. 그의 편지에는 엉뚱한 매력과 연인들의 애교가 섞인 거품이 있지만, 그의 변함없는 칭찬에도 일리가 있다.

나 야고보는 하나님도 아니고 천사도 아니고 다른 사람과 같은 사람입니다. 그리스도에게는 그의 요한이 있고 나는 나의 조지가 있습니다.

남북 전쟁의 군사 전술 (답변 해설)

남북 전쟁의 여성 (답변 해설)

올리버 크롬웰의 초상화(답변 해설)

(1) 로저 로키어, George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham : Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (2004-2014)

(2) 모리스 애슐리, 영국 왕과 왕비의 삶 (1975) 182페이지

(3) 존 필립스 케년, 스튜어트 (1958) 41페이지

(4) 제니 월말드, King James I : 옥스포드 국립 전기 사전 (2004-2014)

(5) 앤서니 웰던, 제임스 1세의 궁정과 성격 (1650)

(6) 다이앤 퍼키스, 영국 남북 전쟁: 민중의 역사 (2007) 15페이지

(7) 폴린 그레그, 찰스 왕 (1984) 49페이지

(8) 알라스테어 벨라니, 로버트 카, 서머셋 백작: 옥스포드 국립 전기 사전 (2004-2014)

(9) 존 필립스 케년, 스튜어트 (1958) 47페이지

(10) 존 콘시딘, Thomas Overbury: 옥스포드 국립 전기 사전 (2004-2014)

(11) 피터 애크로이드, 남북 전쟁 (2014) 45페이지

(12) 로저 로키어, George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham : Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (2004-2014)

(13) 존 필립스 케년, 스튜어트 (1958) 50페이지

(14) 피터 애크로이드, 남북 전쟁 (2014) 46페이지

(15) 로저 로키어, George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham : Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (2004-2014)

(16) 제임스 1세, 추밀원 회의에서 연설(1617년 9월)

(17) 존 필립스 케년, 스튜어트 (1958) 50페이지

(18) 크리스토퍼 히버트, 찰스 1세 (1968) 49-50페이지

(19) 리처드 커스트, 찰스 1세: 정치 생활 (2005) 8페이지

(20) 로저 로키어, 튜더와 스튜어트 브리튼 (1985) 225쪽

(21) 마르쿠 펠토넨, Francis Bacon : 옥스포드 국립 전기 사전 (2004-2014)

(22) 모리스 애슐리, 영국 왕과 왕비의 삶 (1975) 187페이지

(23) 리처드 올라드, 클라렌든과 그의 친구들 (1988) 24페이지

(24) 존 모릴, King Charles I : 옥스포드 국립 전기 사전 (2004-2014)

(25) 폴린 그레그, 찰스 1세 (1981) 페이지 85-87

(26) 캐롤라인 M. 히바드, 헨리에타 마리아: 옥스포드 국립 전기 사전 (2004-2014)

(27) 존 필립스 케년, 스튜어트 (1958) 60페이지

(28) 배리 겁쟁이, 스튜어트 시대: 영국 1603-1714 (1980) 158페이지

(29) 존 모릴, King Charles I : 옥스포드 국립 전기 사전 (2004-2014)

(30) 존 필립스 케년, 스튜어트 (1958) 63페이지

(31) 캐롤라인 M. 히바드, 헨리에타 마리아: 옥스포드 국립 전기 사전 (2004-2014)

(32) 찰스 칼튼, 찰스 1세: 개인 군주 (1995) 76페이지

(33) 제럴드 하와트, 스튜어트와 크롬웰의 외교 정책 (1974) 35페이지

(34) 폴린 그레그, 찰스 1세 (1981) 129페이지

(35) 로저 로키어, 튜더와 스튜어트 브리튼 (1985) 233페이지

(36) 마크 찰스 피셀, 영국의 전쟁과 정부, 1598-1650 (1991) 페이지 123-125

(37) 찰스 칼튼, 찰스 1세: 개인 군주 (1995) 페이지 149-151

(38) 로저 로키어, 튜더와 스튜어트 브리튼 (1985) 238페이지


House of Lords, 1604-29의 올해 1월 간행물은 Andrew Thrush 박사가 이끄는 4명의 학자로 구성된 헌신적인 팀이 10년 동안 집필하고 연구한 결과를 나타냅니다. 길이가 1,600,000단어 이상인 전기 두 권과 별도의 서문으로 구성된 이 최신 의회 연혁 시리즈는 2010년에 출판된 초기 스튜어트 하원과 그 구성원들에 대한 여섯 권으로 구성된 세트를 보완하고 강화합니다. .

의회의 역사 최신 책의 핵심에는 1604년에서 1629년 사이에 상원에 앉을 자격이 있었던 277명의 동료들의 전기가 있습니다. 1640년에 소집된 의회는 두 개의 부록에 나와 있습니다.)

1대 버킹엄 공작인 조지 빌리어스 의회의 도움으로 왕실의 재정 문제를 해결하려고 했지만 헛수고였던 1대 솔즈베리 백작 로버트 세실을 비롯한 당대의 주요 정치인에게 가장 많은 공간이 자연스럽게 할당되었습니다. 벼락 부자 그는 영국 정치를 두 개의 연속적인 왕이 선호하는 최고 장관으로 지배하면서 '고대 귀족'의 구성원들을 격분시켰고 1626년 캔터베리의 대주교인 조지 애벗을 탄핵했습니다. 21대 애런델(Arundel) 백작 토마스 하워드(Thomas Howard)는 '고대 귀족’'의 주도 멤버로, 처음에는 자신을 버킹엄의 주요 동맹자로 여겼습니다. 이러한 개별 연구에서 새로운 것이 많이 발견될 것입니다. 예를 들어, 1621년과 1624년에 프린스 오브 웨일즈에 앉았던 찰스 왕세자(미래의 찰스 1세)에 대한 긴 글에서 찰스의 유명한 말더듬은 심리적 외상이 아니라 확대된 혀의 결과라고 주장합니다. 대중 연설을 어렵게 만드는 거대설증으로 알려진 상태.

전기 책은 Charles와 Buckingham, Salisbury와 Arundel과 같은 우뚝 솟은 인물에 의해서만 채워지는 것이 아니라 빈곤이나 사소한 정치적 중요성 때문에 전기에 포함되지 않은 많은 평신도 동료도 포함합니다. 옥스포드 국립 전기 사전: Hampshire 동료 William, 3rd Lord Sandys 및 Anglo-Irish 귀족 George Tuchet, 11th Lord Audley 및 1st Castlehaven 백작과 같은 남성.

그러나 이 작은 치어들은 저명한 형제들과 마찬가지로 완전히 취급됩니다. 상원에서의 각 사람의 경력(물론 그가 앉아 있다고 가정)과 함께 독자는 그의 정치 경력, 재정 문제, 종교적 설득, 문화적 관심, 일반적인 성격 및 성적에 대한 세부 사항을 찾을 수 있습니다. 사회적 습관. 사실, 이 책들은 세부적으로 풍부하게 채색되어 있습니다. 예를 들어 우리는 버킹엄이 1623년 임질로 스페인에서 돌아왔고 그의 남동생인 앵글시의 1대 백작인 크리스토퍼 빌리어스가 음탕한 술에 취해 뉴넘 패독스 경인 바질 필딩이 그의 젊음에 반칼빈주의자였다는 것을 배운다. 확신에 찬 칼빈주의자는 우리가 모두 생각했고 링컨의 2대 백작 헨리 클린턴은 너무 폭력적인 성향을 가지고 있었기 때문에 제임스 1세는 그가 지하 세계의 영향을 받고 있다고 생각했습니다. 우리는 또한 윈체스터의 4대 후작인 William Paulet이 너무 어두워서 결혼식 밤에 4대 Cromwell 경인 Thomas가 더블린 상점 소녀들에게 편파적이었고 Berkeley 경은 그의 아내가 너무 지배적이어서 그의 청지기는 그에게 'Henry Harmless'라는 별명을 수여했습니다. 비의회 역사가들도 이 책에서 의회 학자 못지않게 관심을 가질 것입니다.

두 권의 전기를 보완하는 것은 상원 자체에 대한 400페이지 분량의 모노그래프입니다. 6개의 큰 장으로 나누어진 이 책은 엘리자베스가 상원에 대한 1983년 연구에서 포스터를 읽었던 것보다 더 넓은 렌즈를 통해 영주를 봅니다. Foster가 거의 독점적으로 의회 자료에 의존한 반면, 이 새로운 연구는 의회를 넘어 주의 발전을 조사합니다. 몇 가지 주요 결과가 나타납니다. 가장 중요한 것 중 하나는 영주가 1620년대에 르네상스를 경험했다는 것입니다. 그 날짜 이전에 하원은 하원의원들만이 의회의 지갑 끈을 통제하는 하원의원에 의해 점점 더 가려졌습니다.

그러나 1621년부터 영주들에게 새 생명이 불어넣어졌다. 부분적으로 이것은 오랫동안 잊혀진 영주의 사법권, 특히 하원을 중앙 무대에 두고 하원을 선망의 대상이 되게 한 탄핵 재판을 실시할 수 있는 권한이 갑자기 부활했기 때문입니다. 그러나 귀족들의 특권이 훼손되는 것을 두려워했기 때문이기도 하다. 아룬델 백작이 이끄는 영주들은 최초의 특권 위원회를 설립하여 귀족들을 위한 일종의 노동 조합으로 변모했습니다. 영주의 부흥의 또 다른 요인은 의회로까지 번진 분파주의의 성장이었다. 1620년대 이전에 영주는 그들의 주요 역할을 왕의 이익을 수호하는 것으로 여겼습니다. 버킹엄의 부상과 귀족 칭호의 판매가 모든 것을 바꾸어 놓았습니다. 그것은 주님 안에서 '반대' 정치라고 부를 수 있는 것의 출현으로 이어졌다. 대중의 마음에서 에식스 백작과 워윅 백작, 사예 자작과 셀레 자작과 같은 많은 상원 의원들은 왕위에 복종하는 사람이 아니라 공동의 챔피언으로 여겨지게 되었습니다. 1620년대 말까지 아무도 20년 후에 군주제와 마찬가지로 상원도 폐지될 것이라고 예측할 수 없었습니다.

House of Lords 1604-29는 이제 Cambridge University Press를 통해 구입할 수 있습니다. 자세한 내용을 보려면 여기를 클릭하십시오.


1대 버킹엄 공작 조지 빌리어스

1614년, 당시 "영국에서 가장 잘 생긴 남자"로 불리는 Villiers는 [1] 제임스 왕을 소개받았고, 그는 곧 그를 "사랑스러운 아이와 아내"라고 부르며 그에 대한 강한 애정을 키웠습니다. 그는 처음에 왕이 현재 가장 좋아하는 서머셋의 로버트 카 백작에 반대하는 사람들의 지지를 받았습니다. 그 후 몇 년 동안 그는 빠르게 기사, 남작, 자작, 백작, 후작, 그리고 마침내 공작이 되었습니다.

2004-2008년 Northamptonshire의 Apethorpe Hall 복원은 Villiers의 침실과 James의 침실을 연결하는 이전에 알려지지 않은 통로를 드러냈습니다. [2]

Villiers는 James 통치의 많은 정치적, 군사적 사건에서 주도적인 역할을 맡았는데, 그 중 많은 것이 매우 좋지 않은 것으로 밝혀졌고 그는 매우 인기가 없었습니다. 일부 기록에 따르면 그는 프랑스의 여왕인 오스트리아의 앤(남편 루이 13세는 동성애자였다고 함)의 연인이 되었습니다.

1625년 제임스가 사망한 후 빌리에는 제임스의 아들인 찰스 1세를 지지했지만 1628년 포츠머스에서 암살당했습니다.


오늘은 블로그 트리오 중 처음으로 축하하는 날입니다. LGBT+ 역사의 달. 폴 엠 허니볼, 부편집장 영주의 집 1604-1629 프로젝트는 지난 LGBTHM의 블로그 후속편으로 시작됩니다. ‘제임스 1세와 그가 가장 좋아하는 작품: 야코비 궁정에서의 섹스와 권력’. 이 새로운 블로그에서 그는 1610년대와 1620년대에 궁정에서 버킹엄 공작의 지위의 발전과 James I…과의 복잡한 관계를 탐구합니다.

버킹엄의 1대 공작 조지 빌리어스(George Villiers)는 아마도 오늘날 제임스 1세와 10년 동안의 관계로 가장 잘 알려져 있을 것입니다. 그러나 역사적으로 그는 제임스 1세와 그의 아들 찰스 1세의 연속적인 왕실에서 가장 사랑받았던 것으로도 똑같이 유명합니다. 당시 유럽에서 비할 데 없는 위업이었다. 두 왕과의 매우 다른 관계를 고려할 때 버킹엄의 업적은 더욱 놀라운 것 같습니다. 동성애자인 제임스가 그를 육체적으로나 정서적으로 매력적으로 보았기 때문에 그는 처음에 유명세를 얻었고, 이것이 그들의 관계를 유지하는 데 중요한 고려 사항으로 남아 있었습니다. 찰스는 아버지와 확연히 대조적으로 당시의 관습적인 동성애 혐오적 편견을 공유하고 제임스의 동성애를 승인하지 않았으며 처음에는 버킹엄을 극도로 싫어했습니다. 공작이 마침내 그와 함께 맡게 된 역할은 친구이자 필수 불가결한 고문이자 최고 장관의 역할이었습니다. 감정적으로 절제된 찰스는 공작에 대한 깊고 흔들리지 않는 애정을 발전시켰지만 그들의 우정은 확고한 플라토닉한 성격을 띠었습니다. 버킹엄이 이러한 전환을 성공적으로 수행할 수 있었다는 사실은 제임스와의 관계의 진정한 본질에 대해 몇 가지 흥미로운 질문을 제기합니다.

Jacobean 법원에서 경쟁 세력은 왕의 호감을 얻기를 바라는 잘생긴 청년을 승진시켜 공개적으로 왕의 영향력을 구했습니다. 버킹엄 자신은 캔터베리 대주교 조지 애벗과 펨브로크 백작 3대 윌리엄 허버트의 의뢰인으로 궁정 생활을 시작했는데, 그는 자신의 매력을 이용해 이전에 왕이 사랑했던 서머셋 백작 로버트 카를 대체했습니다. 유리한 결혼 생활을 찾아 법정에 섰다고 전해지는 젊은 Villiers는 침착하게 자신의 새로운 역할을 맡았습니다. 훗날 글로스터의 주교가 된 고드프리 굿맨(Godfrey Goodman)에 따르면, '그는 영국에서 가장 잘 생긴 남자였고 그의 팔다리는 매우 잘 뭉쳐 있었고 그의 대화는 매우 유쾌하고 매우 다정했다'(G. Goodman, King James First 법원, i. 225-6). 또 다른 관찰자인 Simonds D'Ewes 경은 그가 '섬세하고 잘생긴 외모로 가득 차 있습니다. 예, 그의 손과 얼굴이 제게는 특히 여성스럽고 호기심이 많은 것 같았습니다'(J.O. Halliwell (ed.), Sir Simonds D'Ewes의 자서전 및 서신, i. 166-7).


  • 1대 버킹엄 공작 조지 빌리어스(George Villiers), c. 1616 (W. 라킨?)

  • 조지 빌리에, 1대 버킹엄 공작, 1625(피터 파울 루벤스)

1616년에 그가 가터 훈장을 받은 기사로 창작한 것을 기념하기 위해 그린 초상화에서 이러한 특징을 알 수 있습니다. 버킹엄은 깨끗하게 면도하고 길고 우아한 다리가 눈에 띄게 표시되어 있습니다. 그러나 9년 후 샤를이 왕으로 즉위하자 공작은 루벤스가 그린 이 승마 초상화에서 볼 수 있듯이 다소 다른 이미지를 홍보하기를 열망했습니다. 여기 수염 난 버킹엄은 의식적으로 남성주의와 힘의 분위기를 내뿜고 있으며, 이것이 그가 남은 경력 동안 자신을 표현하기로 선택한 방법입니다.

이 변화는 제임스와 그의 관계에 대해 무엇을 말해 줄 수 있습니까? 7~8년 동안 버킹엄은 보다 유능한 페르소나를 기르는 데 적합했습니다. 왕은 그에게 완전히 매혹되었고 실제로 감정적으로 그에게 의존하게 되었습니다. 살아남은 서신으로 판단할 때 버킹엄은 왕실의 연인에 대해 상당한 애정을 갖게 되었습니다. 그러나 한 가지 근본적인 문제가 있었습니다. 이것은 현대적인 게이 파트너십이 아닙니다. James는 어떤 의미에서 궁극의 17세기 설탕 대디였으며 그의 연인에게 부와 직함과 영향력을 주었습니다. 소수의 상류층 출신인 버킹엄은 사회의 정상에 올랐으며, 이때 공작국은 일반적으로 왕실 구성원을 위해 마련되었습니다. 그는 다른 신하들에게는 거부되었던 왕과의 비공식적인 친밀감을 어느 정도 달성했습니다. 그럼에도 불구하고 그는 제임스가 그들의 관계를 통제했다는 사실을 결코 잊지 않았습니다. 왕은 버킹엄을 자신의 가장 훌륭한 창조물로 자랑하기를 좋아했으며, 이는 암시적으로 그가 그를 다시 만들 수 없다는 것을 의미했습니다. The duke’s lavish thanks for all the benefits that he received reflected his awareness that he had a lot to lose if circumstances changed, and he was painfully aware that his rivals at court sought his downfall by tempting James with other pretty young men. Over time Buckingham assumed the role of a surrogate son, and James took to signing his letters as ‘thy dear dad’. But the duke knew his place, and invariably described himself in reply as ‘your Majesty’s most humble slave and dog’ (D.M. Bergeron, King James & Letters of Homoerotic Desire, 177, 182). There was surely an element of humour in that moniker, but it also reflected the fundamental imbalance in their relationship, and Buckingham’s perennial insecurity.

The duke’s success in finally winning over Charles offered him a way out of that situation. Exactly how the two men became such close friends has never been fully explained, but by 1623 Charles and James were effectively competing for Buckingham’s attention. Charles gained the upper hand that year when he travelled to Spain in a misguided bid to finalise his marriage to a Spanish princess, and the duke went with him. Once there, Buckingham adopted a flamboyantly heterosexual image, and acquired a reputation for womanizing. By the end of that trip, he and the prince were virtually inseparable, the proof coming a few months after their return to England. Charles, smarting from his treatment in Madrid, had abandoned any thought of a closer alliance with Spain, and was now intent on war. James, who had spent his entire reign promoting Anglo-Spanish peace, naturally opposed this strategy. Buckingham, while as solicitous as ever of his royal master’s wellbeing, sided with Charles. The now ailing king complained loudly about his favourite’s behaviour, but, as Buckingham had no doubt calculated, could not bring himself to dismiss him. These conflicts further enhanced the duke’s standing with Charles, and when the latter finally became king in March 1625 it was generally acknowledged that, in political and social terms, Buckingham’s position was now stronger than ever. Indeed, it was only an assassin’s knife that finally ended his dominance three years later.

Assessing same-sex love and desire in the early modern period is fraught with difficulty, and Buckingham’s case is no exception. His ability to switch between two radically contrasting modes of behaviour may seem strange to a modern eye, but such sexual fluidity was arguably less exceptional at the time. The undeniable warmth of his correspondence with James indicates a fair degree of genuine mutual affection, and indeed it’s hard to see how the duke could have sustained his role as royal favourite for so long without this. Nevertheless, when he had to choose, Buckingham valued his long-term security above loyalty to James, and this suggests that for him, ultimately, their relationship was based not on love but on the pursuit of power and wealth.

R. Lockyer, Buckingham (1981)

M.B. Young, King James and the History of Homosexuality (2016)

Biographies of Buckingham, Prince Charles, Archbishop Abbot, the earls of Pembroke and Somerset and Bishop Goodman will appear in the History of Parliament’s forthcoming volumes on the House of Lords 1604-29. A biography of Sir Simonds D’Ewes is being prepared for the volumes on the House of Commons 1640-60.


3. His Friend Became Famous

Though the public did not yet know either of their names, the teenage traveling buddies would prove to be a duo for the history books. The young Villiers’ partner-in-crime, John Eliot, grew up to be an influential statesman famous for his support of the rights of Parliament—an opinion for which he was repeatedly imprisoned as an adult.

But of the two, Villiers would make the biggest splash by far.

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About George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham

George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham (28 August 1592 – 23 August 1628) (surname pronounced /ˈvɪlɚz/ ("villers"))[1] was the favourite, claimed by some to be the lover, of King James I of England[2] and one of the most rewarded royal courtiers in all history.

5 Relations with Parliament, 1621-1624

6.1 War with Habsburg Austria, France, and Spain

He was born in Brooksby, Leicestershire, in August 1592, the son of the minor gentleman Sir George Villiers (1550-1604). His mother, Mary (1570 - 1632), daughter of Anthony Beaumont of Glenfield, Leicestershire, who was left a widow early, educated him for a courtier's life, sending him to France with Sir John Eliot.

Villiers took very well to the training he could dance well, fence well, and speak a little French. In August 1614, Villiers, reputedly "the handsomest-bodied man in all of England," was brought before the king, in the hope that the king would take a fancy to him, diminishing the power at court of then-favourite Robert Carr, 1st Earl of Somerset.

Following Villiers' introduction to James during the king's progress of that year, the king developed a strong affection for Villiers, calling him his 'sweet child and wife' the personal relationships of James are a much debated topic, with Villiers making the last of a succession of favourites on whom James lavished affection and rewards. The extent to which there was a sexual element, or a physical sexual relationship, involved in these cases remains controversial. Villiers reciprocated the king's love and wrote to James: "I naturally so love your person, and adore all your other parts, which are more than ever one man had" and "I desire only to live in the world for your sake". Villiers gained support from those opposed to the current favourite, Robert Carr, 1st Earl of Somerset. However, restoration of Apethorpe Hall, undertaken 2004-2008, revealed a previously unknown passage linking the bedchambers of James and his favourite, George Villiers.

Under the king's patronage he prospered greatly. Villiers was knighted in 1615 as a Gentleman of the Bedchamber, and was rapidly advanced through the peerage: he was created Baron Whaddon and Viscount Villiers in 1616, Earl of Buckingham in 1617, Marquess of Buckingham in 1618 and finally Earl of Coventry and Duke of Buckingham in 1623. After the reductions in the peerage that had taken place during the Tudor period, Buckingham was left as the highest-ranking subject outside the Royal Family.[3]

In the 1620s, Villiers acquired York House, Strand, which, apart from an interlude during the English Civil War, remained in the family until George Villiers, 2nd Duke of Buckingham sold it to developers for ꌰ,000 in 1672. He made it a condition of the sale that his name and title be commemorated by George Street, Villiers Street, Duke Street, Of Alley, and Buckingham Street, some of which have survived into the twenty-first century.

Buckingham with his wife Katherine Manners, their daughter Mary and son George, 1628Buckingham married the daughter of the 6th Earl of Rutland, Lady Katherine Manners, later suo jure Baroness de Ros, on 16 May 1620 despite the objections of her father. Buckingham was happy to grant valuable royal monopolies to her family.

From 1616, Buckingham established a dominant influence in Irish affairs, beginning with the appointment of his client, Sir Oliver St John, as Lord Deputy, 1616-1622. Thence, he acquired control of the Irish customs farm (1618), dominated Irish patronage at court, particularly with the sale of Irish titles and honours, and (from 1618) began to build substantial Irish estates for himself, his family and clients - with the aid of a plantation lobby, composed of official clients in Dublin. To the same end, he secured the creation of an Irish Court of Wards in 1622. Buckingham's influence thus crucially sustained a forward Irish plantation policy into the 1620s.

The 1621 Parliament began an investigation into monopolies and other abuses in England and extended it later to Ireland in this first session, Buckingham was quick to side with the Parliament to avoid action being taken against him. However, the king's decision in the summer of 1621 to send a commission of enquiry, including parliamentary firebrands, to Ireland threatened to expose Buckingham's growing, often clandestine interests there. Knowing that, in the summer, the king had assured the Spanish ambassador that the Parliament would not be allowed to imperil a Spanish matrimonial alliance, he therefore surreptitiously instigated a conflict between the Parliament and the king over the Spanish Match, which resulted in a premature dissolution of the Parliament in December 1621 and a hobbling of the Irish commission in 1622. Irish reforms nevertheless introduced by Lionel Cranfield, Earl of Middlesex, in 1623-1624 were largely nullified by the impeachment and disgrace of the pacific Lord Treasurer in the violently anti-Spanish 1624 parliament - spurred on by Buckingham and Prince Charles.

In 1623, Buckingham accompanied Charles I, then Prince of Wales, to Spain for marriage negotiations regarding the Infanta Maria. The negotiations had long been stuck, but it is believed that Buckingham's crassness was key to the total collapse of agreement the Spanish ambassador asked Parliament to have Buckingham executed for his behaviour in Madrid but Buckingham gained popularity by calling for war with Spain on his return. He headed further marriage negotiations, but when, in 1624, the betrothal to Henrietta Maria of France was announced, the choice of a Catholic was widely condemned. Buckingham's popularity suffered further when he was blamed for the failure of the military expedition under the command of Ernst von Mansfeld, a famous German mercenary general, sent to the continent to recover the Palatinate (1625), which had belonged to Frederick V, Elector Palatine, son-in-law of King James I of England. However, when the Duke of York became King Charles I, Buckingham was the only man to maintain his position from the court of James.

Buckingham led an expedition to repeat the actions of Sir Francis Drake by seizing the main Spanish port at Cฝiz and burning the fleet in its harbour. Though his plan was tactically sound, landing further up the coast and marching the militia army on the city, the troops were ill-equipped, ill-disciplined and ill-trained. Coming upon a warehouse filled with wine, they simply got drunk, and the attack was called off. The English army briefly occupied a small port further down the coast before reboarding its ships.

This was followed by Buckingham leading the Army and the Navy to sea to intercept an anticipated Spanish silver fleet from Mexico and Spanish Latin America. However, the Spanish were forewarned by their intelligence and easily avoided the planned ambush. With supplies running out and men sick and dying from starvation and disease, the fleet limped home in embarrassment.

Buckingham then negotiated with the French regent, Cardinal Richelieu, for English ships to aid Richelieu in his fight against the French Protestants (Huguenots), in return for French aid against the Spanish occupying the Palatinate. The aid never materialised, and Parliament was disgusted and horrified at the thought of English Protestants fighting French Protestants. The plan only fuelled their fears of crypto-Catholicism at court. Buckingham himself, believing that the failure of his enterprise was the result of treachery by Richelieu, formulated an alliance among the churchman's many enemies, a policy which included support for the very Huguenots whom he had recently attacked.

When the Commons attempted to impeach him for the failure of the Cฝiz Expedition (1625), the King dissolved Parliament in June to prevent his impeachment.

In 1627, Buckingham led another failure: an attempt to aid his new Huguenot allies besieged at La Rochelle in France. He lost more than 4,000 men out of a force of 7,000. While organizing a second campaign, he was stabbed and killed at Portsmouth on August 23, 1628 by John Felton, an army officer who had been wounded in the earlier military adventure. Felton believed he had been passed over for promotion by Buckingham.[4] Felton was hanged in November and Buckingham was buried in Westminster Abbey. Buckingham's tomb bears a Latin inscription translated as: "The Enigma of the World."

The memory of George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham, is held sacred by the Villiers Club, an exclusive dining and debating society at Oxford University.

A fictionalised Buckingham is one of the characters in Alexandre Dumas, père's The Three Musketeers, which paints him as a lover of Anne of Austria and deals with his assassination by Felton. In Arturo Pérez-Reverte's novel, El capitán Alatriste, Buckingham appears briefly while on his expedition to Spain in 1623 with Charles I. He is also a central character in novels by Philippa Gregory, Earthly Joys, and Evelyn Anthony, "Charles, The King. He also appears, played by Marcus Hutton, in the Doctor Who audio drama The Church and the Crown, in which he leads an aborted English invasion of France in 1626.

Buckingham's daughter, Lady Mary Villiers, was the wife of the Royalist 1st Duke of Richmond. Richmond was the grandson of the 1st Duke of Lennox of the Seigneurs d'Aubigny Stuarts. His elder son Charles (1626 - 1627) died as an infant and the title was inherited by his younger son George.


George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham

George Villiers, Earl of Buckingham, became the favourite of James I after they first met in 1614. Villiers succeeded Robert Carr, Earl of Somerset, as the king’s favourite after Carr’s fall from grace after the murder of Sir Thomas Overbury.

Villiers was born on August 28 th 1592 at Brooksby in Leicestershire. His father was a minor noble who had remarried and Villiers was born to his second wife, Mary Beaumont. He knew that in future years he would have to compete with his half-brothers for a share of his father’s modest estate. His mother was an ambitious woman and she saved enough for him to be educated in France. Here Villiers learned to dance, duel and ride with a degree of expertise. By all accounts Villiers was an athletic and well-built man. One contemporary described him as “no one dances better, no man runs or jumps better.”

James first met Villiers at Apethorpe in August 1614. James was forty-seven.

“He (James) was of middle stature, more corpulent through his clothes than his body, yet fat enough, his clothes ever being made large and easy, the doublets quilted for stiletto proof, his breeches in pleats and full stuffed……his eye was large, ever rolling after any stranger that came into his presence, in so much as many for shame have left the room, as being out of countenance….his legs were very weak….and that weakness made him ever leaning on other men’s shoulders his walk was ever circular, his fingers ever in that walk fiddling about his codpiece.”

James was immediately taken in by Villier’s appearance. In 1615, Villier’s was made a Gentleman of the Bedchamber. His advance after this was swift. In 1616, Villiers was appointed Master of the Horse, made a Knight of the Garter and became Viscount Villiers. In 1617, he became Earl of Buckingham and in 1619, he was made a Marquess.

Such a swift advance up the social order was bound to provoke negative thoughts with regards to both James and Buckingham and the latter certainly made enemies. It was not unusual for a king to have favourites – but the speed with which Villiers climbed the social ladder and was promoted was too much for many.

Their public displays of affection only served to bring the court into more disrepute. James referred to him as “my sweetheart”, “my sweet child and wife” and “my only sweet and dear child”. In response to this, Buckingham flattered the king at every opportunity. There can be little doubt that Buckingham knew what he was doing (he ended his letters to the king with “Your majesty’s most humble slave and dog”) and that by pandering to James he knew that he was enhancing his own position within the royal court. In 1617, James explained to the Lords why he was making Villiers Earl of Buckingham:

“I, James, am neither God nor an angel, but a man like any other. Therefore I act like a man, and confess to loving those dear to me more than other men. You may be sure that I love the Earl of Buckingham more than anyone else, and more than you who are here assembled. I wish to speak in my own behalf, and not to have it thought to be a defect, for Jesus Christ did the same, and therefore I cannot be blamed. Christ had his John, and I have my George.”

One casualty of the rise of Buckingham was the demise in political terms of the Howard’s. In 1618, the Star Chamber, spurred on by Buckingham, prosecuted the Lord Treasurer, the Earl of Suffolk, leader of the Howard faction, for embezzlement. It ended any political influence the Howard’s may have had – but it also removed from power one of the few rivals Buckingham had in 1618. Buckingham used his influence over James to get Francis Bacon appointed to be the country’s senior law officer as Lord Chancellor. This suited James as Bacon was a strong supporter of the royal prerogative and he was now in a position to support the king when James had to justify its use. It also suited Buckingham as Bacon had the Duke to thank for his social and political advancement.

Buckingham was a shrewd manipulator of the king. He also knew the value of patronage – appointing his own men to positions of responsibility. They would support him and be grateful to Buckingham for their elevated status in society. One described Buckingham as thus:

“(A man of) a kind, liberal and free nature and disposition – to those that applied themselves to him, applauded his actions, and were wholly his creatures.”

In 1620, Buckingham married Lady Catherine Manners, the daughter of the Duke of Rutland. He swiftly became a very rich man as he built up a large clientage network of office holders and monopolists. He put his own supporters and family in positions of responsibility and during all of this self-advancement he had the full support of the doting James. Christopher and John Villiers both benefited from their brother’s position in society despite their own limitations. Buckingham’s mother became a countess in 1618, a marchioness in 1619 and a duchess in 1623.

However, far more damaging to James was the fact that he allowed Buckingham to involve himself in policy matters and decision-making. This was bound to alienate powerful groups in Parliament who felt more and more alienated from both the king and decision-making.

The Parliament of January 1621 to January 1622 started to reverse the trend towards Buckingham’s ever-expanding power base. Two men who had gained office via the patronage of Buckingham – Sir Giles Mompesson and Sir Francis Mitchell – were impeached by Parliament for monopoly offences. Lord Chancellor Bacon was also impeached for accepting bribes.

Buckingham was also a supporter of a marriage between Charles and the daughter of Spain’s Philip III – a policy that the majority of Parliamentarians did not support. In December 1621, Parliament produced the ‘Protestation’. This was deemed by James to be a sign that Parliament believed that it had the right to discuss foreign policy issues – something that he was adamant that they did not. James physically tore out the ‘Protestation’ from the House of Commons Journals with his own hands such was his anger.

Buckingham accompanied Prince Charles to Spain (1623) on what was to be a failed marriage mission. From this embarrassing failure, the nation witnessed a complete volte-face by James. War was declared on Spain and in May 1625 and Charles married Henrietta Maria of France.

The influence Buckingham had over James did not decline even in the king’s final months. In one of the last letters written by James to Buckingham in December 1624, James signed off with:

“And so God bless you my sweet child and wife and grant that ye may ever be a comfort to your dear dad and husband.”

James died on March 27 th , 1625. This could have left Buckingham in a void both socially and politically, but he had spent time winning over Charles when he was a prince. Now that Charles was king, Buckingham neatly moved over to his new master and became his chief minister.

Charles and Parliament fell out nearly from the start of his reign. Whereas Parliament had been happy to give James a clean start, the same was not true for his son. Parliament attacked the religious policies of Charles – especially the relaxation of the penal laws against Catholics. With regards to Buckingham they vented their spleen at his foreign policy. His foreign policy was openly criticised as incompetent. Buckingham had signed treaties with Denmark and Holland for English participation in the Danish phase of the Thirty Years War where 8,000 men out of 12,000 died on board their ships without even landing in the Netherlands he had also masterminded the marriage of Charles to Henrietta Maria, a French Catholic, that was far from popular he had also lent Cardinal Richilieu eight boats which were used to attack the Huguenot stronghold at La Rochelle. However, he failed to get France to commit herself to greater involvement in the Thirty Years War. Parliament voted through only limited taxation to finance Buckingham’s foreign policy and this lack of money was a major reason for its failures. As an example, Buckingham wanted an armada to attack Cadiz. 15,000 men were gathered together for this venture in October/November 1625. It was a dismal failure due to the poor training that was given and the poor equipment. Buckingham took the blame for this.

In 1626, Parliament, led by radicals such as Sir Edward Coke, became even more critical of the king’s chief minister and started impeachment proceedings against him. Charles responded by dissolving Parliament. Buckingham reversed his previous foreign policy. Now in support of the Huguenot defenders at La Rochelle, he led 6,000 men to the Isle de Rhé in July 1627. He left in November 1627 having achieved nothing except the loss of nearly half his force. “Since England was England, it received not so dishonourable a blow.” (Denzil Holles)

In 1628, Parliament continued to attack Buckingham and Coke called him the “grievance of grievances”. Parliament sent a remonstrance to Charles in 1628 that declared that they feared for England’s religion, her standing in Europe and her success in the Thirty Years War if Buckingham continued in power. Charles merely prorogued Parliament (June 1628).

Clearly protected by the king, Buckingham confidently went to Portsmouth to start organising another sea-going venture. Here, John Felton, who had taken part in the disastrous Cadiz and Isle de Rhé ventures, murdered him on August 23rd, 1628. Buckingham’s funeral was held at Westminster Abbey where soldiers formed an armed guard to protect the coffin from the cheering crowds.


George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham

This highly ambitious son of a Leicestershire knight rose to be the favourite of James I, and of his son Charles I, on the strength of his charm and good looks. He was full of brave schemes, but lacked the good sense to carry them out effectively. As Lord High Admiral he bungled expeditions to Cadiz and La Rochelle, and his diplomatic incompetence led him to become the House of Commons' 'grievance of grievances'. At the age of 36 he was assassinated by a fanatic while in Portsmouth. This portrait, which shows him in his garter robes, almost certainly commemorates his installation as a Knight of the Garter in 1616.

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Handsome and ambitious, George Villiers became the most notorious of James I's favourites. He was a younger son from a minor Leicestershire gentry family and caught the king's attention during a hunt at Apethorpe in Northamptonshire. Opponents of Robert Carr, Earl of Somerset, saw an opportunity to replace him with Villiers in the king's favour and secured Villiers' appointment as Royal Cupbearer. He flourished and was elevated by the king with astonishing speed through the ranks of the aristocracy, being made Duke of Buckingham in 1623. He became one of the king's leading ministers but was widely regarded as corrupt and extravagant, and although his influence continued under Charles I, he was blamed for a number of military failures while serving as Lord High Admiral he was assassinated in Portsmouth in 1628 by a soldier who had served under him in France. This portrait celebrates Villiers' installation as a Knight of the Garter and elevation to the peerage in the summer of 1616, which was an important indication of his intimacy with the king. His luxurious robes are drawn back to focus attention on his legs, and he wears the garter, bearing the Order's motto Honi soit qui mal y pense ('Shame be he who thinks evil of it'), below his left knee.

This splendid portrait has undergone some changes. Acquired by the Gallery with the background curtains painted green, it was so displayed until 1985, when close examination revealed fragments of paint of the present colour which under analysis proved to be the original. Skilfuly restored to its full glory, by removing the green paint and matching the garments, we can now enjoy the voluptuous splendour of its original colour scheme.

George Villiers was the most notorious of James I&rsquos favourites: men admired by the King, with whom he developed what some regarded as unhealthily close and dangerously dependent relationships. Handsome and charming, Villiers was promoted rapidly at court and as a duke and one of James&rsquos leading ministers, he had considerable power. An effective administrator in some areas and a knowledgeable collector of art, he was widely regarded as corrupt and extravagant, and was blamed for various military failures. He was assassinated by a disenchanted soldier at the age of thirty-six.

William Larkin (d.1619) was one of the most accomplished portrait artists of the Jacobean period. He and his studio painted a large number of dramatic full-length portraits, often including spectacular textiles, as well as more intensely focused head-and-shoulders portraits. Buckingham is depicted here in his lavish robes as a Knight of the Garter.


Meet the English nobleman who may have been King James’ boyfriend

What it’s about: Born in England in 1592 as the son of a “minor gentleman,” George Villiers may have gone through life as merely a handsome rich guy, had he not attracted the notice of James I (also called James VI, as he was the king to unite the Scottish and English crowns, and was the sixth King James of the former, and first of the latter). Villiers was a favorite of the king, and shot through the aristocratic ranks, becoming a knight, baron, viscount, earl, marquess, and then duke in rapid succession between ages 21 and 30. (The title of duke had been retired some time earlier, so this promotion made Villiers the highest-ranking person outside the royal family.) His close relationship with the king sparked speculation, then and now, that the two men were lovers, despite the 26-year age gap.

Biggest controversy: As James heaped title upon title upon Villiers, he also gave him jobs of increasing importance at court. At age 21, members of the court pushed for Villiers to become Royal Cupbearer, hoping he would supplant the King’s previous favorite, Robert Carr . (He did). The following year, Villiers was knighted and named Gentleman Of The Bedchamber . (There’s nothing ambiguous about the name of the role, which was to serve in intimate duties like helping the king dress.) A year after that, Villiers became Master Of Horse and a Knight Of The Garter . The year after that he was made an earl, and the year after that he was named Lord Admiral Of The Fleet. And that’s when the trouble began.

In 1623, after becoming the official Duke Of Buckingham, he was charged with helping arrange the Prince Of Wales’ (the future Charles I ) marriage to Maria, the Spanish Infanta. The plan collapsed, and “Buckingham’s crassness” may have been the cause. The Spanish ambassador insisted Buckingham be executed for his (unspecified here) behavior, but Villiers called for war on Spain instead. He tried to shore up relations with France by betrothing Charles to Henrietta Maria, King Henry IV’s youngest daughter, but the idea of the English king marrying a Catholic was wildly unpopular. To make things worse, Villiers gave military aid to France’s Catholic Chief Minister, Cardinal Richelieu , against his Protestant enemies, in return for help attacking Spain.

That attack failed—an attempt to burn down Spain’s main port was aborted when the sailors captured a warehouse full of wine and got drunk instead of attacking. The Spanish fleet escaped a planned ambush. And Villiers had to retreat from a naval skirmish he fought alongside the French. He blamed Richelieu, and soon sided against him and with the French Protestants he had only recently been fighting against. Through the whole mess, Villiers’ popularity with the English people plummeted, although he never lost the support of James or Charles.

Strangest fact: We don’t know for certain whether Villiers and James I were lovers because of 17th-century England’s love of flowery prose. Our ideas on masculinity have changed dramatically in the last 400 years. It wasn’t uncommon for platonic male friends of the era to speak and write of their friendship in ornate language that, in modern times, would only be used for a romantic overture, and even then seen as a bit much. The King ended a letter to Villiers with, “God bless you, my sweet child and wife.” The Duke responded, “I naturally so love your person, and adore all your other parts, which are more than ever one man had.” Apparently we weren’t doing “phrasing” in 1623.

Thing we were happiest to learn: Villiers was quite a patron of the arts , commissioning paintings (including two Rubens ), financing plays, and buying collections of rare books (including the first book in Chinese to be donated to Cambridge’s library). However, a good deal of his patronage seems to be self-serving—the play he financed was an anti-Spanish satire he intended as propaganda. And the paintings he commissioned were mostly of himself, looking regal, in an attempt to impress and remind people of his standing.

Thing we were unhappiest to learn: Villiers was corrupt as all get-out. He almost immediately used his various positions of influence to “prodigiously enrich his relatives.” He had his friend Francis Bacon appointed Lord Chancellor, but threw him under the bus when Parliament investigated the bribery and “financial peculation” the two men engaged in.

Villiers also abused Britain’s habitual abuse of Ireland, selling Irish titles, controlling Irish customs (the import/export kind, not the step-dancing kind), and prolonging England’s plantation policy (more on that in the next section) for his own financial gain. Twice, Parliament tried to impeach Villiers, but in both instances, he convinced the King to dissolve Parliament for ostensibly unrelated reasons.

Three years after James’ death, Villiers (still supported and employed by the new king, Charles I) was stabbed to death by John Felton , an army officer who had been wounded in one of Buckingham’s campaigns, and believed he had been passed over for a promotion unfairly. Villiers was so disliked by that point that Felton was a national hero, even after he was hanged for murder.

Also noteworthy: Britain’s plantation policy toward Ireland had devastating short- and long-term effects. While ruling over the Emerald Isle, Britain seized property from Irish landowners and gave it to English settlers, creating an English, protestant ruling elite, and an Irish population who were essentially serfs who weren’t allowed to own land in their own country, and in some cases weren’t even allowed to rent it as tenant farmers. At one point, less than 10 percent of the island was owned by Irish Catholics, and Parliament once proposed moving the entire Irish population to the western third of the country, an idea that failed only because of a lack of willing English settlers to re-fill the other two-thirds.

As it is, so many Irish were forced out of the northern part of the country, mostly to be replaced by Scots, that upon Irish independence, those Protestant-majority counties remained part of the U.K., which led to partition of the island and a 30-year guerrilla war .

Best link to elsewhere on Wikipedia: So, back to Villiers’ job as Gentleman Of The Bedchamber . From 1650 to 1837, it was an official office, usually held by a member of the peerage (according to the timeline here, the positions seems to have originated with Villiers, although his own page doesn’t mention that). Duties included attending to the king when he ate in private, helping him dress, and insuring he wasn’t disturbed while asleep or using the bathroom. As unglamorous as this all sounds, it was a sought-after position, as it naturally made the office-holder a close confidant to the monarch. But just so we’re clear on how unglamorous it was, it was quickly combined with an older title, the Groom Of The Stool , who was, as Wikipedia delicately puts it, “responsible for assisting the king in excretion and ablution,” although in practice, the Groom Of The Stool acted more as the king’s personal secretary.

Further down the Wormhole: Villiers was a notorious figure in both history and fiction. He’s met Doctor Who (in 2002 audio drama The Church And The Crown , not the TV series), has appeared in numerous historical fictions of the era (most recently in Howard Brenton’s 2010 play 앤 불린), and shows up as a character in Les Trois Mousquetaires , known to American audiences as The Three Musketeers. The book describes him as “the favourite of two kings, immensely rich, all-powerful in a kingdom which he disordered at his fancy and calmed again at his caprice,” and called his life, “one of those fabulous existences which survive, in the course of centuries, to astonish posterity.” No less astonishing was the life of the book’s author, Alexandre Dumas , the grandson of a slave, the son of one of Napoleon’s generals, and one of the most widely read French author of all time. We’ll hear his story next week.

Host of the podcast Why Is This Not a Movie? His sixth book, The Planets Are Very, Very, Very Far Away is due in fall 2021. He tells people he lives in New York, but he really lives in New Jersey.


English Historical Fiction Authors

Katherine Manners was the daughter of Francis Manners, 6th Earl of Rutland and Frances Knyvett. After the death of his first wife Rutland married Cecily, the daughter of Sir John Tufton, who bore him two sons who died in apparently mysterious circumstances which were the centre of a notorious witchcraft case. Their deaths resulted in Katherine becoming the heir not only to the Knyvett property from her mother, but also to the unentailed estates in Yorkshire and Northamptonshire.

Portraits of Katherine show her to have been a rather plain woman, but doubtless her inheritance more than made up for her lack of beauty, and Buckingham and his mother opened negotiations. However, there were complications: Rutland was a Roman Catholic and the king would only permit his favourite to marry a Protestant, therefore pressure was brought to bear upon Katherine to abandon her religion. Rutland may well also have heard the talk and speculation about the exact nature of King James’s intense relationship with his handsome young favourite the Earl was often at court and must have witnessed the very public display of kissing and caressing. The amount of dowry demanded, too, was exorbitant and Rutland was offended. The negotiations floundered, but Buckingham and Mary’s solution to the deadlock was a plan which reflects badly on them both.

In March 1620 Mary visited the Countess of Rutland in the absence of the Earl, and invited Katherine to dine with her, promising to bring her back home before night-fall. It has been commonly assumed that the invitation was to Mary’s Leicestershire home at nearby Goadby Marwood. However, Mary brought the innocent girl to her lodgings at the Gatehouse in Whitehall. Even worse, Katherine stayed overnight, and so did her suitor, despite the fact that his own lodgings were within walking distance. The next day Katherine was returned home, but her outraged and furious father refused to receive her at Belvoir. The fact that Buckingham had also slept under the same roof ensured that Katherine’s reputation was ruined. Rutland was now forced into the position of insisting that Buckingham marry his daughter to save both her and the family’s honour.

The affair caused great scandal and despite Buckingham’s importance, the marriage did not take place at court with the usual lavish and lengthy entertainments, instead the couple were married privately in 1620, witnessed only by the Earl and the King.

The Buckinghams lived a lavish life-style, but it seems clear that this was not the fairy-tale life which Katherine had imagined. Perhaps she had unrealistically believed that Buckingham would leave his life at court and devote himself exclusively to her, and in a bitter, reproachful letter in 1627 she told him that, ‘… there is none more miserable than I am, and till you leave this life of a courtier which you have been ever since I knew you, I shall think myself unhappy.’

Buckingham again outraged convention and stretched Katherine’s devotion to the uttermost when he travelled to Paris in May 1625 to escort England’s new Queen, Henrietta Maria, to her new home. The English favourite scandalised the French court by blatantly making love to the French Queen Anne of Austria, giving scant thought to his pregnant wife at home. The Duke’s obsession with Anne, which he did not try to disguise, must have caused Katherine great heartache, and he made determined attempts to see the queen again.

The evidence suggests that although Buckingham was never in love with his wife he nonetheless genuinely cared for her, and notwithstanding his inability to remain faithful, treated her well. When he discovered that Katherine had been ill, perhaps seriously, while he was in Madrid, he seems to have been genuinely alarmed, confessing his adultery and asking for forgiveness, and even telling her he would return home if she was still sick. Katherine was aware of her husband’s weakness, and comforted by his concern for her, she was able to be sufficiently magnanimous to tell him that he was a good man save for his one sin of "loving women so well."

The increasing attacks upon the Duke during the first three years of Charles I’s reign, and the attempts by Parliament to impeach him in 1626 caused Katherine serious alarm. The Duke survived because of the King’s deep attachment to him, but Katherine and his mother and sister were devastated to hear that Buckingham intended to command a naval expedition to La Rochelle to relieve the Protestant Huguenots in the summer of 1627. Such was Katherine’s distress that Buckingham promised her that he would not accompany the fleet, and she wrote to him several times reminding of his promise to her, telling him in one letter that, "I hope you will not deceive me in breaking yours, for I protest if you should, it would half kill me."

However, Buckingham lied and left without saying goodbye. When she realised that he had really gone, Katherine told him she could almost wish herself dead, but although she had failed to keep her husband at home, her letters indicate her continued attempts to control his behaviour.

Buckingham and Charles planned another attempt to liberate La Rochelle, but this time Katherine refused to allow him to quietly slip away, determinedly accompanying him to Portsmouth in August 1628. Fortunately she was still in her bedchamber when the Duke was stabbed to death by John Felton.

The Duchess returned to her Catholic faith after Buckingham’s death. The king, whose devotion to the Duke had matched her own, removed his beloved friend’s children from her care and had them brought up with his own children. Katherine again occasioned the king’s wrath when she married the Irish Randal MacDonnell, then Viscount Dunluce, in 1635 to general censure. Katherine’s second marriage was equally eventful but seems to have been a far more equal partnership, with Katherine playing a leading role. MacDonnell was deeply distressed when she died in November 1649.

Living through a time of political upheaval and the tumultuous events of the Civil War, Katherine Manners was fiercely loyal and passionately devoted to her two husbands, even to the extent of defying convention and incurring the displeasure of her father and the king to marry the men of her choice.

Pamela J. Womack is the author of Darling of Kings, published by Hayloft Publishing Ltd., an historical novel which tells the tragic story of the friendship between Charles I and George Villiers, First Duke of Buckingham. She has also written An Illustrated Introduction to the Stuarts, published by Amberley Publishing Ltd. She is currently writing the Duke of Buckingham’s biography.


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